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OHEC 
375 
.00971 
O59DE\O 
v.24 



0 



r'HE II.I-"TER OF EtU¢'TION FOR ONTARIO 



liON 
,,,, u««m. COLLECTION 

CONTENTS 

II. 
III. 
IV. 
V. 
VIL 
VIII. 

IX. 
X. 
XI. 
XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 
XV. 

COURSE OF TUDY--DETAILS 
Vriting an Art .................. 
I 
Duties of the Teacher .................... 1 
'alue of :Imitation in Lcarning fo Yrite ..... 3 
'alue of Method ...................... 
Amount of Time to ho Devoted to 'riting . 5 
Home SVork in SVritlvg ................. 6 
$'alue of Movement ..... 7 
Muscular Movement ................. 8 

Importance of Initial Stev ................... 9 
Factors in the Development of Muscular Movement 
Materials 
Posture "'" ... 11 
Pen-holding ................ 13 
Position of the Hand ...... 
........ 14 
Position of the Arm ... .. 15 
Counting and Rhythm ... 16 
Position of the Paper 17 
Movement Exercises ................ .. 19 
A System of Signais ............... 20 
'riting for 5.'oung Pupils ......... 20 
Black-board Practice .... 
Practice on Paper .......... 22 
Size of V,'riting . 22 
Speed .......... 
Primary Grade 'riting . 23 
Step One ........... . .... 23 
Step Two "-" 24 
Step Three ............ 25 
Step Four ........................ -25 
Incidental Writing -26 
Detailed Instructions for Each Plate of Part I, 
Book I, Ontario lVritintl Conrse ............... 0_6 
How to Teach Movement Exercises ..... 44 
Straight-line Exercise 
0val--Left and Right ....................... 47 



iv CO I'TENTS 

XVI. 
X¥1I. 
XVIII. 
XIX. 
XX. 
XXI. 
XXII. 
XXIII. 

Iow to OEeacb Capital Letter .................... 49 
Group OncO, C0 A, and E ................. 49 
Group ŒEwo---.N. M, W. Q, Z, X, H, and K .... 56 
Group ŒEhrcc---Y, Uo and Y ............. 65 
Group Four--P. R. and B .. ... 68 
Group Five---I and J ........... 71 
Group Six-- and F ....................... 73 
Group Seven--8 and L ...................... 74 
Group Eight--G and D .... ---- 76 
:How to Teach Small Letters ................... 78 
tIow to 'l'each Words ......................... 81 
]=Iow to Teach Sentences ................. 83 
:How to Teach Signatures ................... 89 
l:Iow to Teach the :Marking Alphabet ............ 90 
A Standard of Measurement ...................... 90 
Percentage Standard of Measurement ....... 95 
Vritini in Ungraded Schools ..................... 95 



WRITING 

PUBLIC AND SEPARATE S('IIOOL 
(:'OURSE OF ,TUD  

ETAILS 

FORI I. JU57IOR GRADE 
The deve'lopment of letter forms 
Exercises in writing at the black-board and at thc desk fa 
acquire easy movement and lightnoss .f stroke 
Blaek-board practice. 

FORI I. SE]XIOR GRADE 

Developlnent of letter forms eontinued 
Exercises in writing af the black-board and af the desk to 
aequire ease of lnovement and lightlleSs of stroke 
The use of the pen -ith ea.v freehand exereises toward 
tho end of/he year. 

FORI I [ 
Pra('ticc at thc de.k and af thc bla(.k-board ta dcvelop the 
('orrect forms of small lctcrs, cai»itals , and figures 
Movement exercises o acquirc easc and control of move- 
ment 
SI)acing and joining 
Copy books or oraded exercises. 



i COURSE OF STUDY 

FORM III 

ç'.py books and graded exereise. 
A«euraey in le/ter forms, and freedoln and control of 
movemcnt 
Spacing and joining 
Simple aeeounts, bills, receipts, and cheques. 

FORM IV 
Rcgular cxcrciscs in writing, including 1)usinc.s forms, fo 
secure lbility, beautv, lihtw,» of/ou«h, and .peod. 



WRITING 

I. WRITING AN AET 
Although writi,,g |las usua]]v bi.en considered a manual 
art rather than a science, yet it must be uuderstood from 
the beginning that it is hot wholly manual. No doubt the 
art of writing, especia]ly when wt.l] and firmly established, 
is largely manual, but the act of writing is mental as well 
as manual. Espeeially is this truc in the case of ehildrcn 
first learning to write. At first, the proper image of the 
form fo be ruade must be in the mind of the pupil bcfore 
he eau be expeetcd fo rel»roduec if, either with chalk or 
with a peneil. The motions used in f, rming the le/ters 
must be guided by the dictates of the brain, until, through 
constant and intelligcut rci»etition , the hanà will, appar- 
ently, without eonseious direction, reproduee the symbolic 
representation of an image alrcadv exi.ting in the mind. 
It is thus that the motions used in writing beeome largely 
habitual or meehanical, and the act of writing beeomes an 
established habit In this wav the writer is enabled t« 
eoncentrate his mind almost wlmlly on what he is writing, 
because the production of the lctters, proper movement, 
and posture have bccome an unconscious habit. 

II. DUTIES OF THE TEACHER 
In the domMn of knowlcdge t is very generally recog- 
nized that a teachcr cannot teach what he docs n.»t know. 
Naturally Jt is true, too, ]n the donmin of .kill, fhat a 
feachcr cannot teach what ho cannot do. In ordor 



2 WRITING 

possess both the skill and the knowledge demanded in the 
teaehing of writing, it is necessary for the teacher fo 
undergo a thorough training in the principles and the 
practice of writing. 
Atcachcr who has had this thorough training shouhl 
be capable of instructing pupils so as fo secure good results. 
For, during the process of acquiring training, the teacher 
will bave had an opportunity, personally, of applying the 
l}rincil}lcs laid down for thc dcvclopmcnt of a correct 
writing movcmcnt and, in practising the exereises, wi]l 
have expcricnced the arious difficulties and discourage- 
ments that pupils meet in their work. At the saine rime 
there wi]l l,e dcvelopcd within the teacher the sympathy 
and enthusiasm so necessarv for teaching writing fo ihil- 
drcn. IIaving travcllcd the road himself, he will know 
the rough places, and will know how best fo he]p the pupils 
over tllc]ll. 
From this it follows that every teacher who is deficient 
in either knowledge or skill, or in both, should set apart 
a portion of his spare rime for systematic, daily study of 
the principlcs contained in this Manual and systematic 
daily practice of the Lesson.¢ contained in the Ontario 
lVriling Courses. 
By systematic, intelligent practice, thc tcacher will 
lcarn, hot only thc requiremcnts of good posture but, af 
the same rime, how to count for thc cxcrcises and how 
fast to make each onc. Thus ho will bc able to lead his 
pupil., .tep by-stcp, through thc various phases of posture, 
pen-holding, muscular relaxation, and application of-more- 
ment fo form. until these requirements become firm]y fixed 
as habits. 
Another fact will al., be impressed upon his mind. 
That is, that too mu«-h must hot be expeeted of the pupil. 



IMITATIO I LARIG TO VRITE 2 

in the begilming, especially in the marrer of neatness and 
control. Until they have acquired considerable command 
over their muscles, the pupils will not be able to do neat, 
legible work. During this period, tire writing will, from 
the standpoint of these two qualities, be poorcr than some 
might expect froln the amount of practiec dcvoted toit. 
]Iowever, by paying particular attention fo the length of 
initial and final strokes and to the arrangcmcnt of the 
words, much unnecessarily poor work can be eliminated. 
The point fo bear in mind is that ail written w,rk, whether 
it be language, spelling, e,lnpo.¢ition, or number, should 
be done with good lnu.¢cular movelnent, no marrer how 
poor and uneontrolled the writing nlay he af fir.t. To 
allow pupils to bave one writing nlovenlent during the 
writing lesson and another for ordinarv w.rk will surely 
defeat the aire of the teaehing. If there is a definite 
understanding between the pupils and the tcacher relative 
to the use of muscular movenlent, no trouble .lmuhl arise. 

III. VALUE OF IMITATION IN LEARNING TO WRITE 
There are two kinds of imitation that may 1,e used as 
a stimulus to improvelnent in writing: (1) hnitation of a 
finished product in tlle form of a CUl)y. and (?) iinitation 
of a person going through the aetual proce.s of writing. 
The trend of instruction in writing af the prcscnt time is 
deeidedly away fronl too nluoh relianee being 1.1aced upon 
the mere eopy, howevcr p«.rt'e(.t if mav bc. Indt.M. it. verv 
perfection may be thc eauCe of a lo.¢s tf faith in if. 
Formerlv the pupil were required fo ilnitate the engraved 
model of a lifeless ¢py, rather t]lall the living proee.s of 
writing itself. It is a well-knaown faet that a ehild ean 
imitate the proee.s mueh better than he ean the finished 
produet. Therefore the proeess of writing whieh the pnpil 



4 WRITING 

bas to acquire ean be best developed lff watching the 
tcacher d«»inffthc actual work. 1)oth on the black-board and 
(,n paper. 
In opp«,sition t,, this vicw if is sometimês said that the 
avcrage tcachcr is ordinari]y hot capable of writing a model 
,,«,d en«,ugh for thc pupils fo imitatê. If that is true, it 
,.an hardlv be rêcognizcd that he is capable of tcaching 
writin,. êvcn with the aid of good copies. Should such be 
thc case. thc teaeher owes it t,» himse]f as wê]l as fo the 
1,upi]. to rcctify sueh a grave defêct in respect fo his 
aptitude f«,r teaehing, f«,r it is now gênêra]ly reconized 
Oint a pers«,n wh,-» eannÇ»t perform an act is hot qualified 
t- tca«h anothor t,, dr» it. 

IV. VALUE OF METIIOD 
In thc past. ari,,us styles of writing bave been usêd 
in our schools, l-uhtlcss se»me of these poessed more 
merit than othêrs. But the ïailure fo produce good writ- 
in cannot bc attrihuted entirelv to an S partictflar system. 
The ïault ]av rathcr in the indiffcrênt and inêffcctive 
lneth«,ds of tt.aehing. A knowledge of thê forms of the 
],-ttcrs and the princil,les up«,n whieh these forms wêre 
based was tllouzht to be all that was nêeêssary to make 
good writing uniersal. Xow it i. generally recognized 
tlmt such tcaching came short of the mark. because if 
fai]ed to comprchend that the essential êlemênt in learn- 
ing fo writê is morement. This fact is receiving gênerai 
recoffnition at presênt, and teachers-in-training during 
reCellt vear. have had a course of instruction in thê 
I, ractic¢" of muscular-movement writin, a. well as one in 
the theory. 
But if must be understood that each teaeher should 
w«,rk mt lais «,Wh mêthM of teaehing, nsing the gêneral 



TIME DEVOTED TO WRITING 5 

principles of muscular moement as the basis of his plan. 
ïhc saine method will nvt always prove effective in the 
hands of every teaeher, nor will it provc effective in its 
application t,» every pupil. Every teaeher, then, shoul,l 
havc a meth«,l that exhihits hi. own pm'sonality and that 
will off.r varietv in ifs appliçati«m t,» thc individual needs 
«,f thc pul»il.. 
There slmuld be a svstmnatic, orderly eff.rt on the 
part «»f the tea«.hcr te, devel«»l» correct posture, with 
speeial regard t, tbe laws .f health and the establi.hment 
of correct writing habits, having referenee to pen-holding. 
tosition of the paper, and lwoper writin« movement, so 
that the pupil mav writo freely, easily, rapidly, and with 
the least expenditure of mental and physieal ener'. 
When a pmper metlmd of toaching writing has been 
u.ed with pUldl., tbe nerves and the hrain shonld he so 
trained that tbey work in unison. That i.. the pupil will 
be able to eoneentrate his mind ehiefly on the train of 
th«»uTbt he is engaged in expressing, while the meehanieal 
produ«-tion of the lettors will be r(,h-gated fa tbe realm of 
habit. And all the time he .hould be sitting in a health- 
ful. hygenie position, wbieh he shouhl be al»le fo main- 
tain fr whatever length of rime hi. a.ue and strength 
determine. 

V. AIOUNT OF TIME TO NE DEVOTED TO WRITING 
Xatura]lv. the more timc given to tcaching writing and 
fo proper practice, the more rapid will be the progress. 
Owing to the extont of thc present-day curriculum, hot 
more than tbirty minutes daily at the outside can be 
allotted fo this subject in either the Public or High 
.chools. ]Iowever, more time than this is hot reallv 
ncccssary, pr«vi,]ed that what i. lcarned during the writing 



6 WRITING 

lesson, sueh as posture, movement, etc., is actually put fo 
use in doing all written work. Unless pupils are thus 
trained, what thcy lcarn in the writing period will be of 
littlc practical value, and a lcsson pcriod two or three times 
as long would not be sufiïcicnt to establish correct writing 
habits. Thc main point fo rcmcmbcr is that fiftcen minutes 
or so cach davis of far grcatcr value than onc hour evcrv 
fourth d'. Thc longer session tends only to fatigue the 
pupils unduly. To sit too long in one position will result 
in morc or lcss ncrvousncss, which mav develop ]ater into 
the dreadcd '" writcr's cramp "' 
For ver)- young pupils thc ideal pcriod should hot be 
more than ton minutcs twicc daily, if the rime can be 
sparcd : for Sccond Book pupils al»out fiftccn minutcs; for 
Third :Book pupils about twenty minutes: and for Fourth 
Book pul»ils a]«mt twcnty-five minutes. Pupils in grades 
above the Fourth should bave about thirtv minutes a dav 
during thc t]rst vcar and thrce pcriods of similar duration 
during the second 3-car. If such an arrangement of the 
tiret-table for any or ail of the grades is not possible, if 
would be advisable to c«msu]t the balanccd time-tab]e on 
page ]s0 of the Ontario Nornml S,.hoo] 3[anual on 
,s'c]ool Managemet, and nmke whatcrer provision for the 
subject the teachcr considcrs feasiblc. Thc nmin point fo 
kccp in mind is that tcaching writing rcally eonsists in 
teaching pupils correct habits of posture and movement 
and in in, pressing upon thcm that the writing lesson 
should teach thcm how to sit when they are writing during 
the other les.¢ons of the day. 

VI. tIOME WORK IN WRITING 
As has been pointed out elsewhere, the chier object 
aimed af in teaching writing is the creation of proper 



VALUE OF MO,OEMENT 

writing habits. Itis essêntial, thon, that all wrlttên work 
bc doue under thc watchful supervision of thc tcache. If 
pupils be permitted to do unsupervised work, thêre is a 
danger that thcy will rail to observe the rules ¢»f correct 
posture, pen-holding, and novcment. Should such a con- 
dition ho pcrsisted in, if will hot bc long bcforc some of 
thêm, probably a majority, will go back to thc former 
unhygienic position and to the equally pcrnicious habit of 
fincr movcmcnt. Considering this danger, itis hot wise 
fo assign home work fo any pupils lower than Form IV. 
and these pupils of Form IV should be permitted to do 
home work only when they have mastered the writin 
movement sufficicntly fo be able to use it skilfully in all 
their written work. Assigning work fo be doue at home 
to pupils such as these would add greatly fo their control 
over their writing muscles, for "practice makes perfect ". 
But it must be borne in mind that the esscntial element in 
the practice is quality rather than quantity. 

¥II. (ALIOE OF MOV-EMENT 
Movemcnt is the foundation of all good writing. 
Therefore thc problcm of teaching writing is centred in 
the developmcnt of the proper writing movement. If thc 
teacher could, by some magie, put every pupil in possession 
of the proper movement, thc problem confronting him 
would be grêatly simplificd. Unfortunatêly, no such 
magie bas yet bêên di.qcovered. The problêm must be 
face& The difiïeulties that arise from differences in the 
size, age, and mental capacity of the pupils must be taken 
into considêration and due allowance ruade for these 
differenees. ,qomc pupil. seem fo acquire the proper more- 
ment ïrom the beginning, while others never eem able to 
acquire it af all. 



8 WRI'çING 

Investigation has shown that the shape of the han,l 
bas eonsiderable influence upon the case with whieh pupils 
acquire the proper movement. Pupils with hands and 
fingers of normal size rarely bave nmeh trouble in iting 
with almost pure museular movement, while those with 
hands either abnrrmally fat or abnormally rhin, espeeially 
the latter, almost always have great diffieulty in mastering 
the movement. In the case of the fat hands, the diffieulty 
arises fr-m the laek of mobilitv in the fingers, while in 
the case of the rhin hands it e»mes from an exeess of 
nerves. 
It mu»t hot be un,lerst,,«»[ f,m thi that l,upil with 
almormal hands cannot lcarn to write; but they cannot 
]carn to write wcll. The movement they use is usually a 
mixture of nmseular and fin/er movement with the latter 
pred,minating. The result is that their writing laeks 
freedom and eontrol and sometimes neatness. However, 
there are exceptions among pupils with abnormal hands; 
some do learn fo write fairlv well. 

VIII. MUSCULAR MOVEMENT 
The naine "Muscular "' is app]icd fo this writing more- 
ment primarily bccause if is produced by the large muscles 
of the arm and shoulder, in contradistinction to the writ- 
ing movenmnt ruade almost exelu.¢ivelv by the action of the 
fingers. Other names, such as Arm Movement and Fore- 
arra Movenmnt, are applied fo it bv somc educationists. 
But whether if be called by one namc or another, exactly 
the same kind of movement is raeant ; so there need be no 
discussion over the naine that is applied to if. 
In muscular-movement writing the fingers bave no 
real function other than that of holding the pen. They 
remain inactive, or nearlv so.- The hand rests on the nails 



IMPORTANCE OF INITIAL STEP. 9 

of the third and ïourth fingers, and thc arnl rests on the 
muscular cushion just below the elbow. Thc motive power 
is furnished by the large nmsclcs of the upper part of the 
arin and shottlder. By siinply moving the arm backward 
and forward on the muscular cushion, allowing the hand 
fo slide on the finger nails, all thc moveinent needed in 
Inaking rapid, legible writing is produeed, with the pos- 
sible exeepticn of a slight finger action necessary to make 
graeeful loop letters. Soine advoeates of Inuseular more- 
ment con.idcr even thi. ain,»Ulff of fingcr m,»vcment as 
quite unnecessary, even dctriincntal to thc creation of thc 
proper writing moveinent. The differcnce bctween thc 
two systeins is so snmll that n,» tcachcr nccd havc anv 
s(.ruples in adoptin either one. If the work i. donc by 
the pupils as it should be donc, excellent results will ïollow 
in either case. 

IMPORTANCE OF INITIAL STEPS 
The initial steps in the forination of a correct writing 
movement should ot be gone oer rapidly. They are the 
very foundation of the pupil's progress. To pass over any 
part of them carelessly or indifferently is an indication 
that the teacher does not realize that every good structure 
requires a firin ïoundation. Every detail is iinportan. 
Every step plays its part in building up a style of writing 
that will not break down nnder the pressure that later 
years will put on it. Therefore itis wise fo spend plenty 
of rime on these preliminary steps. 
Be sure that the pupils bave mastered each step before 
proeeeding to the next. Impress upon them the value of 
acquiring muscular-movement writing. Show them the 
futility of having two writing Inovements, one for the 
writing lesson and one for ordinarv writing. Show thcm 



10 XVRITIIG 

that no permanent progress tan result when such a con- 
dition is persisted in. 
Should some of the pupils find it diflicult t» gct thc 
correct mocment (and therc will be sonm), the best plau 
fo pursue is to make a special class for thcm, in which 
additional instruction will be given suitable to tlmir in- 
dividual nceds. ¥cry littlc improvement can be expecoEed 
from teaching where part of the class is incapable of 
doin the work through hot having mastered the steps 
upon which the instruction is based. 

FACTOItS IN TIIE DEVELOP:MENT OF [USCULAR [OVEMENT 
In the creation of a correct writing movement there 
are certain factors tiret play an important part. These 
will now be taken up in detail, so that the teacher may 
haxe a proper understanding of the part eaeh bears in the 
production of correct habits of writing among the pupils. 

_AIATEP.I kL3 
"" A w,rkman is kllOWll bv the tools he uses." A good 
workman is satisfied only with the best tools that he can 
buy, while a poor w,rkman is content with any kind. 
Always use the best writing materials you can buy. Much 
valuable time and ener" are wasted bv using poor pens, 
holders, ink. and paper. A pen with a medium point is 
best, one that is neither too coar.e nor too fine. Any good 
black or blue fluicl ink will do, provided that it flows 
freely from the pen. Every pupil should bave a cotton 
or chamois penwiper, fo use while he is writing and to 
wipe the pen carefully upon before putting it aside. A 
new pen requires fo bave the varni.-h rubbed off. heforc the 
ilk will adhere properly. The best way to do this is to 
dip the pen in the ink. and then tub it careful b" on the 



POSTURE 11 

edge of a piece of scribbling papcr folded several timcs. 
The holder should be of medium size, with a cork or 
rubber grip. Pupils should hot be allowed to use a holder 
with a metal tip, as it has fo be held tightly in order to 
keep it from turning in the iïngers. This will cause a 
nervous tension that will be very detrimental to the 
development of the writing movemcnt. 

POSTURE 
When itis considered that the major portion of each 
school da)" is spent by the pupils in doing some kind of 
work at the desk, tlle importance of creating a writing 
posture that will conform to the laws of health is quite 
evident. Before entering, however, upon a detailed dis- 
cussion of the requirements of a good posture, a word of 
warning should be sounded, in order to prevent too rigid 
an application of the principles laid down. Especia]ly is 
this true in the case of young pupils. Perhaps the danger 
is in the opposite direction ; but it is well to know that 
when we allow an occasional lapse from the ideal position, 
we are not compromising with our principles, but are 
apllying another one equally valid ; that is, if is hot ideal 
to expect a pupil to maintain any position, except one of 
relaxation, for any considerable length of rime. 
In order that the pupfls may learn the principles of a 
good posture with the least expenditure of time and 
energy, it is essential that the reasons for adopting each 
requirement be eplained to them thoroughly. Ierely 
telling them how to sit is not teaching a correct posture. 
A teacher has hot taught posture until the pupils assume 
a correct posture automatically when commcncing fo write, 
and maintain this position, not on]y during the writing 
lesson, but during ail their written work in all the classes. 
2w 



12 

WRITING 

Pupils somctimes assume incorrect positions quite lm- 
«on.ciou.ly. This is usually due fo some physical defect, 
such as a weakness in certain muscles. The best way to 
«ountcract this tendency is to strengthen these muscles by 
systêmatic, daily exercise. A thorough lmderstanding by 
the l»upils of the bêneficial effects of a good posture on 
the writing movement and general health conditions, and 
«»f the harmful influcncês of a poor posture, will furnish the 
nêce.sary -incentives to overcome the tendency fo assume 
the latter. Constant vigilance in the form of ïrequent 
reminders will prevent occasional lapses. These reminders 
.hould consist of short phrases that will fix the mind of 
the pupils on the special requirements of posture that they 
have momentarily ncglectcd. 
The first requiremênt of a good posture is that the 
b«»dv and the head be held erect. If the back is too 
roulded, the ltmgs, the stomach, etc., will be corespond- 
ingly compressed, and this will interfere greatly with thê 
proper working of the organs of respiration and digestion 
necessary to the creation and maintenance of good health. 
The se¢)nd requirement is that the pupil should sit 
squarely on the seat. In this connection it is well fo point 
out the effect that the seat may have on a good posture. 
If the seat is too low, the elbows will be too ïar ïrom the 
bodv. This causes a waste of ener'. If the seat is too 
high. the pupil will lean too far forward. This will result 
in the unhealthy conditions referred fo in the previous 
paragraph. Care must be taken fo see that the set and 
de.¢k are adjusted fo suit the pupil, otherwise he will adjust 
himself fo suit them. 
A third requirenlent is that the feet shou]d be fiat on 
be floor. If is hot ne«essar).' that thev be kept close 
together, but only in such a position as fo create a perfect 



PEN-HOLDING 1,3 

balance. An ill-balanced position causes a continual and 
unnecessary muscular tension, resulting in a serious loss 
of nervous energy. The two nmst conmmn habits that 
tcachers will need fo warn against are: (1) Extending 
the legs forward under the desk with the heels on the 
floor, and (2) bcnding the legs back under the seat with 
the toes on the floor. The latter position is the one 
assumed usually by the nervous, over-anxious pupils, and 
the former by the careless and indolent ones. 
]t is wcll to remember that a poor posture may some- 
rimes arise from defective eyesight. If such is the case. a 
remedy may be found by removing the pupil to another 
part of the room where the light may corne ïrom a 
different angle, and thus be diffused diffcrently on the 
paper. Should the defect, however, be more deep-seated, 
the only remedy is the use of glasses. 
The next requirement of correct posture is that the 
pupil must face the de.¢k squarcly. Both forearms should 
rest on the desk, with the elbows projecting over the edge 
equally, and at an equal distance ïrom the sides. In this 
position the trunk will be erect, and the spinal column 
will not be curved. Sometimes a pupil develops a habit 
of turning his head fo one side. The reason is that he is 
either holding his pen incorrecfly or the paper is im- 
properly placed on the desk. In either case it is a simple 
matter fo correct the fault. 
(See cuts illustrating correct position, both side and 
front views, on pages 5 and 6 of the Ontario Writing 
Courses.) 
PEN-ItOLDING 
The next factor fo be considered in the development 
of muscular movement is pen-holding. The recognizcd 
manner of holding the pen is fo place the holder in such 



14 

WRITING 

a position that it crosses the second finger somewhere 
between the root of the nail and the first joint. The 
first linger is placed on top of the pen-holder about one 
inch from the end of the pen point. The distance will 
va according to the shape of the hand. Short fingers 
will necessarily be placed nearer the end than long fingers. 
The holder cornes in contact with the hand somewhere 
bclow the knuckle joint. Icre again the position will 
vary according to the shape of the hand. The shorter 
and fattcr the fingers, the lowcr thc holder will drop below 
the knuckle, until with some if will secm to be resting 
almost at the base of the thumb. The thumb is placed 
at the side of (hot underneath) the holder about one 
third to two thirds of an inch from the end of the first 
finger. All the fingers should be bent easily, each one, 
from the first to the little one, being bent slightly more 
than the one before if. In this way they support one 
another. If the hand is ruade fo slide on the nails of 
thc last two finger., the holder will naturally point some- 
where bctween the clbow and the shou]der. (Sec page 4, 
Otario 1Vriting Courses.) 

POSITIOX Or TIIE ItAX-D 
Closely associated with the manner of holding the pen 
is the position of the hand. Indeed all the elements of 
movement, posture, and position are closely interrelated, 
a fact which must be kept iii mind to enable us fo under- 
:tand some of the principles laid down for our guidance. 
With reference fo the position of the hand, the question 
«,f most importance is, whether it should be held so that 
thc wrist is fiat. or so that the side of the hand tests on 
tbc Faper. or whether it should oecupy a position some- 
where between thc two. In the second case the free up 



POSITION OF THE ARM 15 

and down and latcral movcmt«ts ,,f tbe hand are greatly 
restricted, because thc side of the hand does hot provide 
such a polished surface on which fo glide as do the halls. 
The tendency is for thc hand fo rcmain stationary, while 
the fingers hot only form the lcttcrs but also produce the 
lateral movement rcquired in moving along the line. In 
the case of the level, or fiat wrist, it i. now gcnerally 
rec%maized as too extreme and unnatural a position, but 
it was, no doubt, an extreme mea.ure adoptcd by the first 
teachers of muscular movemcnt to counteract the more 
serious dcfect of turning thc hand on the side. The 
position of tbe hand now generally accepted as correct is 
one in which fhc wrist doe. hot touch fhe paper, where 
the hand rests on the nails of the tbird and fourth fingers, 
and the wrist slants sligbtly toward the right, permitting 
the holder fo point somewhere between the shoulder and 
the elbow. (Sec page 4. Onfario ll'rif;ng Cotrses. 

POSITION OF TIIl': ARM 
The arm should re.t on the desk with tbe elbow off 
about one inch. The muscular cushion thus forms a firm 
support for fle arm and acts as a sort of rolling base upon 
which practically all the movement of tbe arm is executed. 
Should the elbow hot project over the edge of the desk, 
imperfections will appear in most of tbe down strokes, 
especially the long ones, owing to the point of the elbow 
coming in contact with thc desk. If tbe elbow projects 
too far over the edge, the weight of the arm is divided 
betweer the hand and the sbouhler, and a sort of teetering 
motion is created. 
Equally important i the position of the left hand and 
arm. Generally tbey should be placed in a position 
symmetrieal with that of the right, in order fo preserve 



]6 WRITING 

the equal elevation of the shoulders, thus preventing 
curvaturc of the spinal colunm. The left hand should be 
«bore thc line of writing. In such a position it performs 
two important functions: (1) It holds the paper firmly in 
position, and (2) it suppos the body. Under this con- 
dition the right hand is free to more easily in any 
directi«»n, while the body is hel4 stcady by the left hand 
and arm. 
COUh'TING A'D RHYTHM 
Another important factor in thc dcvclopment of a 
proper writing movcmcnt is coting. Successf expert- 
ments have shown tiret one of the chief differences betwccn 
the writing of an adult and the writing of a child is that 
the former usually has acquired the habit of writing 
rhythmically. That is, ccrtain strokes seem fo bc made at 
rcgularly rccurring intervals. The iting of a child 
usually lacks this rhythm. Eowever, it has also been 
shown that having a child write to a ceain time or music 
will bave a tendency fo unifv his writing, creating a cer- 
tain regularity or evenness in it. 
The advantage of using rhvthm is well illustrated in 
its general effcct on all kinds of muscar effort. Soldicrs 
marching to music, club swinging, dancing, etc., are ood 
examples. All muscular activitics, especially new ones, 
are marked by a certain dcrcc of nervousness or hesita- 
tion, which is best overcome by performing the act in 
conce in accordance with given sials. In addition to 
the effect of rhvthm on thc nervous tension, it helps to 
relate the movement and fo bring it more under control. 
Ifs influence on certain kinds of pupils is almost in- 
estimable. The slow, stolid, phlematic pupils are ruade 
fo go faster, while the nervous, excitable OlleS are eahned. 



POSITION OF THE PAl)ER 17 

The result is that ail work together steadily and evenly at 
a speed that will produce good writing. 
Rhythm in writing is u.ually dcvcloped by tapping 
with a ruler or a pencil, by the use of a metronome, or 
by music (piano or phonograph). Howcver, thc best- 
method is cotmting, lo mechanical device can take the 
place of the human voice. It açts as a ountain of 
inspiration. The laggards are ru.cd and thc excitable 
are calmed. At the saine time that the tcacher is indi- 
cating the correct count, errors of I)osturc, pcn-holding, 
etc., may be corrected by the use of certain words or 
phrases uttered with thc proper rhvthm. lmuld some 
pupils be holding their pens too tightly while making a 
retraced oral, the fault may be correctcd by counting 
after this manner : 1 - 2 - 3 -  - 5 - relex - relax - relax - 
relax - relax. The same amount of time must be given to 
"' re]ax" as fo "one ", "' two ", etc. Counting is a]so an 
invaluable aid in arousing the interest of the class and 
incrcasing the .peed of the writing. 
In order that counting may be donc effcctivcly, it must 
be done intelligcntly. A few trials should enable the 
teacher who bas already practised the exercise fo indicatè 
the correct count for the class. 0ne point to be borne in 
mind always is that counting mu.t hot be done in a 
boisterous, irritating wav. To do so would defeat the 
aire of the teacher, particularly in the case of nervous 
pupils. 
IX. l)OSITION OF THE PAl)ER 

In determining the correct position of the paper there 
are two general features that must be taken into con- 
sideration. The first one is that the paper and the arm 
mnst be in .,uch a rcl,tive po.ition that the rotation «f the 



1, lçRITI'G 

forearm, using the elbow as a pivot, will carry the hand 
along the line of writing. :Naturally, then, the papcr 
must be tilted toward the left until the forearm and the 
line of writing are about at right angles. The second point 
is that the most natural direction of the down strokes is 
toward the middle of the body, or parallel with the sides 
of the desk. That is, the pen in making down strokes 
will move along the " line of vision" or parallel with it. 
(See page 6, Ontario lVriting Courses.) In consequencc 
of this the direction, or slant, of the writing will deviate 
from the vertical by the saine angle as the paper is tilted. 
Should some pupils write either too verti«ally or too 
slantingly, the fault can usually be overcome by moving 
the top of the paper toward eithcr the right or the left, as 
required. 
Another point of importance fo be remembered is that 
there is one particular location on file paper where the 
pupil can do his best work. It is essential that we take 
advantage of this fact, so that we may make the acquisition 
of the correc writing movement as easy as possible. 
Experiment bas proved that this location is generally about 
the middle of the page, apparently because at this place 
the edge of the book does not interfere with the wrist. 
The reason the lcaves of the Ontario Blan/« Writing Bool«s 
are perforated is that they may be torn out, in order to 
take advantage of this ideal place on the paper. The top 
line should be placed about half-way down on the book, 
and gradually moved up, line by line, until the pupil, when 
writing on the last line, will be writing at the saine height, 
relatively to the book, as when he began. Should the pupil 
find it difflcult to write all the way across the line, the 
paper should be moved once or twice to the left in writing 
across the page. 



MOVEMENT EXER(I.E ]9 

If is hot fo be expected that ail pupils will hold the 
paper exactly as illustrated on page 6 of the Ontario 
Writing Courses. In order to find out the exact position 
for all pupils, if is a good plan fo have them test the 
position before commencing fo write by having them 
swing a dry pen back and forth from one end of the line 
to the other. Should the pen swing above or below the 
line in moving fo the right, the top corner of the paper 
should be moved toward cithcr the left or the right. 

X. MOVEMENT EXERCISES 
Movement exercises usually consist in the repetition of 
certain formal drills, such as the straight line, ovals, or 
modifications of these. The purpose of these drills is fo 
give practice in maintaining correct posture, developing a 
proper writing movement, and applying the movement fo 
the production of formal writing. When a pupil is mak- 
ing actual letters, his attention is largely taken up with 
the result he wishes to attain, and in consequence he is 
likely to neglect the process by which ho attains it. In 
other words, he thinks too much about the w,at, rather 
than the how. The emphasis of present-day teaching is 
placed on the.process rather than upon the result divorced 
from the process. 
A word of warning might not be out of place here. 
Some teachers seem fo have the idea that if they have 
taught pupils to make good movement exercises, they 
have taught writing successfully. But they forget that 
these exercises are but a means fo an end. That end is 
the production of rapid, legible writng with a free, easy 
movement. Consequently, pupils must be tauglit how to 
apply this movement to the formation of letters and words. 



There are two kinds of movement exercises: (1) 
General--a purely ïormal drill such as the straight line 
and ovals, pages 7, 8, and 9, OMario ll'rititg Courses; 
(2) specific---one used in connection with thc actual pro- 
duction of lettcrs, pages ll, 12, and 14, l%ok l. Ontario 
ll'rititg Co«rses. Practice on a gencral-movement drill 
similar in sape or dircction should bc preliminary to 
every writing lcsson. 

XI. A SYSTEM OF SIGNALS 
With young pupils especially it is advisable fo have 
the work done according fo some svstem. The following 
plan is merely a suggestion; many teachers will be al»le fo 
devise a better onc. 

1. Opening--(a) Distribution of books by monitors. 
(b) Open books. 
(c) Detach sheet. 
(d) Attention (arms hanging loosely by 
the side; Illustration 1, page 2). 
(e) Arms raised; (Illustration 2, page 
2). 
(f) Take pencils (or pens). 
(g) Arms in position. 

2. Closing--,qimilar plan for closing. 

XII. WRITI'G :FOR YOU:G PUPILS 
Experiments have clearly demon.trated that the chilà 
is greafly deficient, as compared with the adult, in precision 
of movement, steadiness of movement, and speed of more- 
ment. Thi. tact bas an important bearin_ on the teach- 
ing of writing fo junior pupils. The adult houhl never 



BLACK-BOARD PRACTICE 21 

forger that, while a movement fo him may be rough and 
careless, to the child if is precise and careful. To the 
adult there is a certain strain of attention and fatigue 
due to the making of new adjustments cven in such large 
movements as in learning to ride a bicyele or to skate. 
tIow much greater, then, must be the strain of attcntion 
and farine fo a ehild who is learning to write, an act 
that is not only new to him but also one that requires a 
high degree of preeision. 
Eve means that will minimize the nervous strain on 
the child shod be utilized. Tbe writing lesson for pupils 
in the lower grades should corne ata time when the nerves 
are calm, and before they are fatigued. A pen should not 
be uoed at all fo begin with. The first pen-bolder used 
should bave a cork or rubber grip, and be slight]y smaller 
than the one to be used later. The pencil shou]d hot be 
too hard or too soft; an HB will probably bc more suit- 
able than any other. It should have a medium sharp 
point. 
BLACK-BO XRD PRA('TI('E 
& child is incapable of making precise movements. 
Now it is quite evident that a large letter tan be nlade 
th much less precision of movement than a small one. 
The deviation from the true form of the letMr will bear a 
much smaller proportion o the whole. That is the reuson 
why if is easier to write in good form on the black-board 
than upon paper. Moreover, black-board writing is done 
solely th whole a movement. Ail the fingers do is to 
hold the chalk. 
Since the aire is to teach pupils to write without 9sing 
the fingers, this fact obvious]y shou]d be taken advantage 
of to the llest extent. Aecordingly, the pupils in th,. 
lowest grade should do about 



o WRITING 

the black-board. Af ter about four weeks, practice should 
be donc on paper, but short, daily board practice shou]d be 
continued whercver possible until Parts I and II of Book 
I, Ontario ll'ritbg Courses, are complcted. Indeed, it may 
be used with bcneficial effccts throughout the whole school 
course. Board practice overcomes timidity, assists nature 
in developing and controlling thc largcr muscles of the 
arm aud body, and gives facility in handling the chalk ; 
thus making thc tcachcrs-to-bc more skillcd in black-board 
writing. 
OEhe horizontal lines used in thc larger movement 
excrcises, also for all tbe loop lctters and capitals, should 
be at least four inches apart. Tbe miuimum letters should 
bc af least two inches in height. The slant should be 
sirailar fo that of the writing donc on paper, while the 
speed, of necessity, ,h.uld be considerably less. 

PRACTICE ON PAPER 
Size of writing: 
In omsidcration of wbat bas already been said witb 
respect fo the precision of children's movements, it is 
reasonable fo expect that the writing on paper should be 
larger for junior pupils than for advanced ones. For the 
Primary Grades the minimum letters should be af least 
one fourth of an inch in height, and the capitals and loop 
letters should be half an inch.. This will allow for the 
diffusion of tbe nervous impulse and make for the neees- 
sary flexibility of moveroent. 

Speed: 
As the accuracy demanded is less exact than that re- 
quired of older pupil.% so also sbould the speed be less 
rapid. Tbe movement should be slow enough to permit 



PRIMARY GRADE WRITING 23 

thê eye to guide it, and if should be fast enough to allow 
of no stops or breaks in if. If the movement is not eon- 
tinuous, there ean be no improvement in the ability fo 
make a form of which the picture is already in the mind. 
Iore definite instruction wi]l be ziven ]ater as fo the 
speed af which thê various exereises, letters, etc., are fo be 
written by the different classes. 

xIII. PRIMARY GRADE WRITING 
During the first four weeks of school, as stated before, 
the pupils should do all thcir actual writing practice at 
the black-board. In the meantime they should be learning 
the fundamental steps in the development of muscular 
movement at the desk, utiIizing probably one haIf the time 
of the writing lesson in board practice and one hall in desk 
practice. 
• TEP ONE 
The first thing fle pupils should be taught is how to 
sit at the desk. Thcir attcntion should be drawn fo Illus- 
tration 1, page 2, OMario Writbg Courses. When they 
can assume the correct position readily, bave them raise 
both arms above the desk (Illustration 2, page 2), and 
place thêm on the desk in proper writing position (Illus- 
tration 1. page 6). Consi,lerable drill must be devoted to 
this part of the work, in order fo enable the pupils fo 
assume the position promptly. Next, they should be 
required fo open the right hand until the fingers are 
extended and the hand, palm downward, tests upon the 
desk. Then the right hand, hot the elbow, should be 
raised slightly above the desk (Illustration 1, page 3). 
The two arms should now be in thê saine position relative 
to the desk as in Illustration 2, page 6. 



2i WRITING 

Keel)ing the hands in this position, the pupils should 
be shown how to gixe the right arm a push forward on the 
muscular cushion on an imaginary line (line of vision) 
.traight out from thc middle of the body. Then haxe 
them pull the arm back along this saine line. The 
teachcr should then count aftcr the following manner, and 
the pupi]s and tcachcr shouh] go through the operation: 
pusl, ptdl, pusl, pull. until they bave completed ten up 
strokes and ten down strokes. Afterward the teacher may 
.-unt: «p-down-t«p-down, etc., for a similar number. 
Later on the count may be: 1-2-3--5-6-7-8-9-10. The 
ratc of speed for t]lcsc lnovements shouhl bc about one 
hundred d,,wn str-ke.* in a minute. 
About one week should be devoted to the part of the 
work taken up tlms far, in order that ail the pupils may be 
al>le fo do it easily and promptly. 

.TEP TWO 
The nëxt step is to place a sheet of ruled paper on 
thc desk for the halls fo slide on. Then the fingers should 
be bent under, as in Illustration 2, page 3. The operation 
of pushing and pulling should now be repeated, but this 
time the right hand should slide on the finger halls. The 
counting proccss, af thc saine rate of speed, should be 
continucd bv t]e teacher. 
The point. ¢o bc impresscd on the pupils are: (1) The 
wrist should hot toich thc paper, and (2) the arm sh)uld 
hot slip on the muscular cushion. 
A. soon as ile pupil.,: nnderstand how fo avoid these 
tendcncics, ihcv should bc drillcd in making the hand 
more up and down thc width of a space on their paper 
(one half-inch). About one week should be given fo dr]ll 
on ths Step and the revicw of Step One. 



IRIMAR¥ GRADE WRITING 25 

STEP TItREE 
Up fo tbis rime the pupils have |,,.ou l»ractising with- 
out a pencil. Now they should be taught how fo hold the 
pencil (Illustration 1, page 4). Of course, as soon as a 
pupil finds a pencil in his hand he immediately want. 
fo write. Therefore for the present the pencil should be 
held with the point upward. Systematic daily practiee 
must be given fo pushing and pulling the pencil up aud 
down the widfl of a space, as was donc in Steps One and 
Two. Af the end of another week the pupil should be 
quite capable of holding the peneil as in Illustration 2, 
page 4. 
STEP FOUR 
This brings us fo making the exercises on the paper 
with the peneil. IIere the teacher will have fo explain the 
correct po.ition of the paper (Illustration 2, page 6. 
Nothing nëed be said fo junior pupil. about slant, but 
teacher should explain that the natural direction of the 
strokes will be a]ong the line of vision. 
Af the eomnencement of every lesson a trial shoul[l 
always be ruade fo sec if the paper is in the right position. 
This trial method is cxplained on page 19. 
By the rime the pupil bas arrived af this point in his 
paper practice, he should be able fo do the exercises on 
pages 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 fairly well on the 
board. He bas flms become familiar with the general 
shape of tire exercises and letters by the direct process of 
motor aetivity, before undertaking the more diflïeu]t 
aetivity of producing them with a peneil on paper. Black- 
board praetice should always prece«le paper practice. 



g6 WRITING 

INCIDENTAL WIITI NO 
From what has been sai(l regar(ling pupils (loing 
unsupervise(l writing, man teachers will naturall (lesire 
o know what provision can be ma(le for " Inci(lental 
Writing ". That is, how best ean junior pupils be taught 
to read when if is generally known that the motor activity 
in reproducing the words is an aid fo the recognition of 
the words themselves. To a large extent this work must 
necessarily be unsupervised; and in order fo conform as 
nearly as possible fo fle principlcs already lai(l down for 
the creation of a proper writing movement and proper 
writing habits, if is essential that the work be done in 
such a way that the pupils will hot revert to improper 
postures and finger movemcnt. Considering this, it would 
hot be wise to allow junior pupils to do their written 
r,'ading and number work in the accustomed way. Instead 
(,f using pal)er or slates, they should be required to do this 
work on the black-board or on large sheets of wide-ruled 
i,apcr, so that the writing may be large, thus necessitating 
the use of nmscular movement in its pro(luction. 
• 
XIV. DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR EACH PLATE 

PAGE ï 
The pupils will readily recognize these forms as the 
first movements they practised--the ioush and pull exer- 
cise. The special features to be noted are (1) direction, 
(2) lightness, (3) compactness. The teacher should cotmt 
up-down-up-down, etc., until eighty is reached--the 
number of down strokes in each section in line 1. By the 
aid of a stop-watch or metronome the exact count can be 
aecurately gauged. The speed may be gradually increased 
until the pupils can make one hundred down strokes in a 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR EACH PLATE 27 

minute. Should they experience any diffictflty in making 
the strokes toward the middle of the body, a few light 
pencil lines drawn .on the paper parallel with the line of 
vision will prove helpful in correcting the fault. 
At this stage there may also be a tendency to press too 
heavily on the pencil, a tendency due to nervousness, 
timidity, or some other cause. This fault tan be overcome 
quite easily by saying: light-light-light instead of the 
usual 1-'2-3. :Naturally, the saine measure or beat should 
be used in both cases. 
Another fault, that of lmlding the pencil too tightly, 
sometimes colled "gripping" or "pinching", may be 
«orrected bv repeating don't-pinch-don't-pinch, to the 
saine rhythm as in saying 1-°-3-,. 
There is one special feature in the teaching that must 
be emphasized at this rime. It is to be clearly understood 
that the teacher must write ail the copies on the board and 
as many as possible on paper, so that the pupils may sec 
the teacher go through the actual process of making the 
forms, thus impressing more vividly upon their minds the 
motions and the speed at which the forms should bc 
written. 

PAGE 8 
This is a compact left oral. In order that the pupils 
may understand the direction of the motion used in mak- 
ing this exercise, it is a good plan to say at first: round- 
round-round, and so on, instead of the usual 
etc. Carc must bc exercised ti see that the pupils arc 
observing thc requirements of posture and of the position 
of the paper. 
The papcr should be moved toward the left for each 
group in lines 1 and 2, and at least once for line 3. The 
3w 



28 

points fo be eml»hasized iii «.onllection with the ovals are: 
lightness, comI,actncss, proper width, and correct slant. 
Somc of these drills should be praetised every day. 

]'AGE 9 
The sanie remarks that were aiT]ied fo the ]cft oa]s 
on page 8 are app]icaldc to the right ovals on page 9. 

I'AGE 10 
Large movcmcnt exereises are for the purpose of 
deve],,pilg the correct ,noenlel,t, and the sma]ler exerciscs 
are fo gain control over the movement. Extra. precautions 
nmst be taken, or the pupils will resort to finger movement 
iii making these shorter strokes. A slightly faster count 
mav be used for these cxerciscs, owing to the shorter 
distance fo travel. 

('AUTI,»X--()IflV vigilance will prevcnt too frequent 
lapses in thc lnattc of correct posture, ]lellCi] holding, and 
1.,,sition of the paper. 

PAGE 11 
This i. a modification of the left oval. In making this 
exereise the teacher should sav what the pupils must think 
in doing it. Therefore the count should be: up-round-up- 
round-up-round-up-round-up-round-up-round-up. Later 
on the usual 1-2-3 may be substituted. An excellent plan 
is to have the pupils retrace the exercises about rive rimes, 
both on the board and on the paper. 

CAUTIox--See that the wrist is hot touching the paper, 
also that the pencil is in motion belote cominff in contact 
with the paper. 



INTRUCTION FOR EACII PLATE 29 

PAGE 12 
A modification of the left oral and straight-line exercise. 
Comt: "up-down-p-down, and s «»n. See that the down 
strokcs are slanting properly, and that the paper is moved 
for each group. 

:P±« E 13 
The special points fo be noticed tu the s are the re- 
traced parts at the top and the rounded part which should 
touch the up, or initial, stroke. The eount for a group 
of four letters shouhl be: up-ba«k, tp-b,tcl,', up-b:tck, 
bock, up, pausing slightly at the eommas. The count for 
See should he: up-bock, up-rotn«l, up-rotznd. 
Cat'wmx--.%*e that the pupils do not hold the pencil 
too tightly, or the str«»kes will be both irreflar and heavy. 

P-t6E 14 
A modification of the right oral and straight line. 
The courir shotdd be: up-ocer, «p-over, etc. In order that 
all the pupils ma) do the exercises at the saine speed, it 
is advisable sometimes fo bave one of them count, and 
occasionally fo allow the whole class fo couut. This will 
add interest, and ma)" be the means of enabling some pupil 
with comparatively little understanding of rhythm fo do 
the work evenlv and regularly, instead of jerkily and 
spasmodically. 

PAGE 15 
This is a combination of the exercise on page 14 and 
that on page 11. If the pupils have had a thorough drill 
on these two exercises, they should experience no difficulty 
in combining them into the word me. The count should 



30 WRITING 

I.e : up-oi.er-up-oi'er-up-over-up-romd-up. Constant prac- 
tice on the black-board and on paper should enable the 
t.upils, by gradually increasing the rate of counting, go 
make sixteen or more words in a minute. Af this point 
the teacher should endeavour fo cultivate the habit of self- 
«-riticism in the pupils, by having them compare their work 
with the copy. 
('.'TIoN--Unlcss thc requiremcnts of posturc, etc., are 
heinv met, tire much desired writing movcmcnt will not be 
attained. 

]) GE 1 (i 
l'relimiary l)racticc «)n the left oral. page 8, should 
i)recedc tbe practice on the capital 0. ttave the pupils 
point out the important features--the roundness, the 
.-mall l,,,.p at the top, the upward eurve of the last stroke. 
The eount of this letter should be: big-round-O, whieh 
hot onlv indieates the shape, but also the rime required to 
make if. It would be well to retrace the letters and after- 
ward. make them separately. Prat.tiee on the 0 should 
add greatl.v fo the enthu.iasm of the pupil. for the work. 

PAGE 1 
This i.¢ the fir.t sentence for practiee. It wou]d be 
well to review each word separately, counting as already 
indiiated for each one. Afterwards write the sentence as 
a whole, either moving thc paper for the last half of the 
line, or making two columns. Indieate the count care- 
fully for each part. and inerease it gradually as the pupfls 
become accu.tomed te» the direction of the strokes. 

PAGE 18 
The n will 1)re.ent no special diflàeulty, since the pupil. 
are alreadv familiar with the nmvement from practising 



INTRUCTIO.N'S FOR EACH PLATE .21 

the exereise on page 14, also from writing the word »te. 
Up-over-up-over-up-orer-up-over is the count when mak- 
ing the n in groups of four. 
In writing the word men care must be taken to in- 
dicate the strokcs thc pupils arc cxpc«tod to make. ('ount 
thus: up-over-up-over-up-over-up-ronnd-up-orrr-p-over- 
up. When the pupils tan make the word with some degree 
of case, the «mmt mav be chanzed to 1-2-3--5-6, th,. 
numbers being pronoun«.ed s]owlv cnongh for he pupil: fo 
make an up an,1 down strokc fo eaeh numher. 
CarTIox--P, emembêr that hou, the pupil. are doin 
these exereises is mueh more importaut than u'hat thev 
are doing. 
P.anv 19 
The letter i is quite similar fo the e cxcept that the 
latter has a loop in it and thc former is poiuted at thc 
top. The motions used in making them are alike, but 
care must be takcn fo rc¢race ¢he up s¢roke about one third 
of the way. 
The word in gives practice in changing froln the md«r 
motion in thc i fo ¢lc over motion in thc n. At first the 
courir shou]d be: «p-dow»-up-orer-up-orer-up. La¢er it 
may be ehaned ¢o 1-2-.3-$. couutingfor thc up or thc 
down strokcs. Whcn ¢hc pupil. havc acquired some 
ïacility in making if. the teacher mav spell the word i-n, 
at the rate thev havc been wri¢ingi¢. 
Pupils learn to use muscular movement well bv con- 
stant practice on words and cxercises they know, rather 
¢han by frequent changes fo new and unfamiliar ones. 
P-n 20 
As a preliminary drill before making the u in groups 
of three, practise the exercise on page 12. 



o WRITING 

The teachcr should naine the motions: ip-down- 
up-down-up-down-up-down, and so on. Endcavour fo have 
more spacc between thc lctters than in the lctters. Thc 
word sun constitutcs a rcview of the s, u, and n. It should 
bc rctraccd ou thc board, as suggcsted bcfore, so that thc 
lmpils may beconm accustomcd to the changes of motion 
that o««ur in writin if. Sixteen to eighteen words a 
mbmfc would 1«_, a ood rate of speed. 

The r is mu(.h like an i except for the shoulder, tbe 
part that makes this lctter diflicult to make. Count: 
«p-fnll-down. This constitutcs about the exact description 
of the movemcnt. After rcachiug the top, the pcncil 
takes a sort of tumble, then reeovers itself and cornes 
down straigbt. Groups of tbree or four r's should be 
mado. For thv word run spcll the lctters, aud inerease 
the spccd until about sixteen words a minute are being 
ruade. Supplementary words for practice: rise, ruin. 

] AGI.: OE 
Another short sentence for a review, enabling tbe 
pupils to eonsolidate the moement without having to 
resor to a grea deal of mental effort. Tha is, they will 
be able to pay more attention fo the meehani«al part of 
the work--tbe movemeut. I t would be well fo nanm the 
strokes for ea«h word at fir.t: later on the letters may be 
spelled at the rate at whi«h tbe pupils are expeeted fo 
nmke them. Endeavour fo secure ncatness bv means of 
arrangement and spacing of the letters and words. 

(:!AUTIOX--,qec that the pupils assume a çorre(.t 
hygienic posture. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR EACI[" PL kTE 33 

I)-GE 23 
The motions used in making the small o should be 
explained by tlte teaclter to thc pupils. The special 
ïeatures arc thc roundness and thc revcr.cd notion used 
in completing it. The count uscd in describing the 
motion should be: round-o-swing. The connecting, or 
swing, stroke between the o's sbould hot I»c ruade t«»o 
short, thus giving as much freedom as possible. Make 
about sixteen groups in a minute. 
C-«uTmx--Endeavour te» estab]ish the habit of self- 
critici.m, bv frcquent comparisons with the copy. 

PE 
The motions nceded fo makc the word on should prc- 
sent no great difiïculty, if thc pupils have succeedcd in 
making the top joinings in the precedng lesson with any 
degree of ease. Describe the motions after this manner: 
round-o-swing-over-ocer-up. Afterwards naine thc letters. 
C.çIoN--It is necessary to vatch for all nfractons 
of the rules of posture, etc. If the pupils are not using 
pure muscular movement in these exercises, the wrting 
moçement is hOt being properly developed, and the teacher 
is only laying up trouble for the future. Supplementary 
worfls : no, one. 

This lesson is fo provide additional practice in the top 
joining and in changing from ont motion to another. 
Xame the motions bv saying: swing-s, up-rond-ocer- 
over-up, pausing slightly af the comma, so that the stroke 
of the s mav be retraced. In ordcr tbat thc pupils may 
have the motions firmly fixed in their min«ls, if is a good 



34 WRITING 

plan to retrace the words many times. Another method 
that gives excellent results is to make the word with the 
blunt end of the pencil. As no strokes are being made on 
the paper, the pupils can concentrate their minds on the 
character of the movement rather than on the result of the 
movement. 

P_t6E 26 
The word nine furnishes a valuable drill in changing 
from the over motion to the under motion and back again. 
At first, the motions should be named, as: over-over, etc., 
but latcr on the letters may be spelled, or 1-2-3-4-5-6 mav 
be substituted, a count for each down stroke. This exer- 
cisê ought fo be practised frequently both at the board 
and at the desk. A speed of sixteen or more words a 
minute is sutîïcient. 

PA6E 27 
There is some resemblance between the A and the 0. 
In making the A, the first stroke is round, but as soon as we 
reach the base line, instëad of continuing the round motion 
we make an p stroke whieh conneets with the starting- 
point. The la.¢t stroke drops clown through the base line. 
Before the pupil can make these strokes he must think 
them, so the teachcr should count: round-up-drop. At 
first the letter should-be lnade with the blunt end of thc 
pencil. When the pupils can write flae A with ease and 
ïreedom, using the dry movement, then reverse thê pencil. 
About thirtw to forty A's a minute constitute a "ood rate 
of speed. 

C,vTOh'--There can be no development of a good 
writing movement un]ess the pupils sit in a correct 
position. 



INSTRUCTIONS :FOR EACH PLATE 35 

P.t(:E 28 
The capital A and the small a are so much alike that 
naturally they shou]d follow each other. The main 
difference lies in the size and the finishing stroke. The 
motions used in writing a are: round-ztp-tnder. The 
pupils shou]d practise the letter in groups of three or four, 
naming the motions as they write. Afterwards if will be 
suflïcient fo sav a-a-a-a. In making an count round-up- 
under-over-over. 
C.t;rlO-X---Rcmember fo retrace thc letters and fo 
practise with the dr!! (pcncil inverted) rnovemcnt fre- 
quently. 

PAaE 29 
This lesson constitutes a review, in order that the 
pupils may gain more freedomi movement, and speed. 
At first the motions should be named: over-o'er-ocer-«p- 
round-under-over-ot'er. Latcr on. counting for the down 
strokes will be all that is necessarv. Care must be exer- 
cised fo allow sufficicnt rime for m when the letters are 
named. If bas thrce down .¢troke.. while a and n bave 
only two each. 
Ct-rlo.x'--Be sure he ops of thc m's and n's are 
being rounded. If they are being ruade too sharp, show 
the pupils how fo get more roundness in the os'er stroke.¢. 

PAaE 30 
The chief characteristic in the c is the smalI dot at 
the beginning. Otherwise it is ruade like o. Considerable 
time shou]d be given fo black-board and dry-movement 
pracoEice on this letter. The motions may be described by 
saying dot-round. In joining the c o an name the 
motions rhum: dot-rotnd-over-round-tnder-over-orer. A. 



soon as the pupils eau write the word easily fo this count, 
change the count fo c-a-n or 1-~-o. Ilowcver, as the pupils 
have had considerable practice in writing an, if should 
be enough fo naine the lettêrs and indicate the motions 
used in making c, thus: dot-round-over-a-n. About six- 
teen words a minute should consfitutc a maximum speed. 

PAGE 31 
Mueh improvcment should result from practising this 
sentence, on all the words of which the pupils havê 
alreadv been dri]led. :Notice how the words are arranged 
in colunms. Bv arrauging the words thus thê pupils will 
gain both in neatnêss and in control over the writing 
nlovenlent. 
('AUTIOX--Be sure the pupi]s a]wavs bave a well- 
sharpened peneil readv for the writing lesson. 

PAGE 32 
The first part of x is ruade like the last part of ,. 
The cross stroke should bc marie upw«rd, otherwise the 
pupils will be making a down strokc on a slant entirely 
different from the shmt of any other down stroke. Thc 
direction of this stroke is similar to that of the ordinary 
connective, or up, strokes. It crosses af the middle point 
of the down stroke. Considerable practice should be 
given on the single x, before writing if iii groups of three. 
The cross strokes are added af ter the first part of fhe 
three letters bave 1)een written. The count for x is orer- 
undcr, cross. In wrifing rnix, count for the down stroke.: 
1-2-8--5, 6, pausing slightly after 5, in order to make 
the cross stroke properly. Later. it should be enough fo 
name fhe lctters, keeping in mind that the i requires much 
less rime than either m or x. 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR E.k('II PLATE 

l'A(r: 33 
The v is a combination of the strokes found in 1, u, 
and o. The motions used in making it may be described 
thus: over-tnder, swing. A slight pause should be madc 
before making tire final, or swing, strokc. :Endeavour to 
have each pupil posscss a g,»od mental picture of the letter 
bcfore commencing to practise if. Black-board and dry- 
movemcnt practicc should i,e d.nc on thc v, both singly 
and in groups, lcforc tryinu if with a pcncil. The word 
vb, e will prcsent no difiïculty, a¢ thc pupils havc already 
written the word ,i,e. Thc v,unt for vic may be given 
in this wav : ot'er-umler, swit,.I-i-n-e. Fr,,m twclve fo fifteen 
words a minute should constitute a good rate of speed. 

œe.tC.E 34 
The pupils will have no trouble in finding the points 
of similarity between the iv, the u, and the v. The motion 
may be described as follows: ,p-under-uder, swiig, with 
a slight pause at the comlna. The count fo desi.nate the 
motion used in writing the word is: ,«p-udcr-uttder, 
swig-i-s. Supplemcntar 3" words: now, wine. 
('AVTIO.X---Only by continuous nlovement tan strong, 
smooth lines be nmde. Therefore, do not allow breaks in 

the movement. 

PAOE 35 
In practising the sentence give a short preliminary 
drill on the separate words. Try to have the pupils keep 
the words in alimcnt. The endinzstrokes should be 
no higher than thc minimum lctters. By exercising care 
in these t3vo particulars thc page will prescnt a neat and 
orderly appearance. 
CAUTION'--S]oW writing is productive of a(.(.uracy of 
form at the expcnsc of movement. 



PA(}E 36 
The letter in this lesson is much like the i, only taller. 
The cross stroke cuts the main stroke about one quarter of 
the distance down. The retraced portion is about one hall 
the length of the whole letter. Describe the motion used 
in making the t l)v saying: up-under, cross, pausing 
slightly af tbc comma. The pupils should be already 
ïamiliar with thc final combination in tin. Count: 
up-und¢r, l--cross-dot. 
('A,'TIO.X'--.¢4ee that nn finger mnvement is used in 
making the t. 
PAGE 37 
Whcncvcr it is possi]de, thc pupils should be asked fo 
point out resemblances betwcen the new letter to be prac- 
tised and th«»se thcy have already learned. A great deal 
of enthusiasn can ]»e ar(»uscd in this wav. The first part 
of d is like a, and the last part is like 1. The motion 
sh«»u]d be dcscribcd by saying: rou»d-up-under. For the 
word done, count ïor d in the usual way. then add o, n, e. 
Considcrab]e practicc af lbe l»oard and with the un- 
sharpcned end of the pencil wi]l ])e nccessary, so that the 
pupils will acquire the m,ce.sarv (.«»nfidence t make these 
large ïorms wilh case and skill. Encourazment should 
be giçen ïor effort as wc]] as for achievement. 
CAUTIO.X'--A litt]c praise, judicious]y given, is of great 
he]p fo those who find the work hard. Praise is oïten the 
only incentive that will keep pupils persevering during 
those periods when progress is slow. 
P«E 38 
The upper part of the p is like t. The bottom part is 
a lower, or down, loop. These two parts should be of equa] 
length. The last part of the ]citer is not unlike an a 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR EACH PLATE 39 

upside down. The motion used in making the p may be 
described as ïollows: up-down.-loop-oval-up. The letter 
should be practised both singly and in groups of threes on 
the board, and with the dr), movement. It is a long 
letter, much longer than anv the pupils bave had hereto- 
fore. In writing the word pen the count should be: 
up-dovn-loop-or«l-e-. Latcr oi1, naming thc lcttcrs will 
t)e quitc sulfieient. 
PA(E 39 
The lnain point of difference bctween thc capital N 
and the small s is that the top of the latter is pointed, 
whilc thc te»l» of the fl»rlner is a h.op. Thc smne motion is 
used in making both, but in thc case of thc capital, the up 
stroke is marie twiee as long as in the small s. The motion 
may be describcd as follows: up-loop-ba«k. After eon- 
siderablc drill on the letter, thc pupils .hould practisc the 
word, describing the motion thus: up-loop-back-a-m. 
Pt(E 40 
As $OOll ts the pupils reach this lesson, if should no 
longer be neeessary to naine the motions used in making 
those letters that thcy alrcady know. Spelling the word 
should be enough. Apply this mêthod fo the sentence on 
this page. Aire at a neat, orderly arrangement. 
P.6E 41 
The upper part of j is like .i, and thc bottom part is a 
lower loop similar to that in p, except that it is longer and 
wider. The eount should be: up-down-loop, dot. When 
writing jam, naine the motions for ] and add a, m, dot. 
CrTOX Keep in lnind that the devclopment of a 
proper writing novement is th(. «»hjeet of these lessons in 
writing. 



I.*.¢J E 42, 
This lesson introduces another letter whieh belongs £o 
the group of small letters that bave a lower loop as £he 
distinzuishing characteristic. The first part of gis like «. 
The motion used in making the letter should be named 
thus: round-down-loop. ]t would be well to ,pend con- 
siderablc rime in black-board and dry-movement praetice 
before attempting this letter on paper. The count for the 
word i: round-down-loop-u-m. 
C.t'TI«»x--P, cnaenfl»er fo bave frequen comparisons 
between the pupils' work and the copy. 

]'AGE 43 
The pupil. should be able to pick out the points of 
similarity between the y, the j, and the n. The count is 
over-undcr, loop. with a slight pau.e at the comma. There 
is a rather diffieult joining between the m and the 
Spend somc time on black-board and dry-movement drill 
on this combination. In writing it on paper, naming thc 
letters will be stdficient. 

]P±GE 4t 
This less, m intl'oduces a new feature--the upper, or up. 
loop. If the loop were nmde the saine height as the 
minimum spaced ]etters, it would be exaetly like the e. 
But as it is twiee as high. nlOl-t, rime will be needed iii 
making if, and a differen eount will al.o be necessaç'. 
:Possibly tire best wav of deseribing the motion is o sa)': 
itp-loop-under. In all probability if would be advisable 
not fo ell the junior pupils about using their fingers in 
naaking either the lower or upper loops. Tha had beter 
be left unt,.'l they reach the Third or the Fourth Class. Bv 
so doing, no excuse will be given for the use of anv lïl]ffer 



IN,STRUfTION.q FOR EAC PLATE 41 

movement during such a formative stage of thc pupils' 
development. For file word line count: up-loop-under- 
i-n-e. About twelve words a minute is a good rate of 
speed. 

1)AOE 45 
The l is mcrely an upper loop with thë last part of 
m or n attached. Describe the motion by saying: up-loop, 
over, pausing slightly at thc comma. Considerable black- 
board and dry-movcment practice should be donc on these 
lool)s. Thi. kind of practicc gives the pupils facility in 
making the motions without wanting to use the fingers. 
Consequcntly, they acquire more skill and more confidence. 
The count for l,«s is: up-loop-ocer-a-s. 

PaOE 46 
The distinguishing. ïeaturê between an h and a k is 
the round hook on the second part of the latter. Interest 
can be aroused by having the pupils point out what they 
consider the distinguishing ïeature, also by having them 
describe the motions used in making the different letters. 
The connt for - should be : up-loop-ot,er-round-under. For 
the word lal«e the best count is merely fo spell the word. 
allowing some extra rime for making the ['. Ten words a 
minute is fast enough fo write this word. 

PAGE 47 
The loop in b is similar to that in the three preceding 
letters. The second part is similar to the last part of v. 
The motions used in making if may be described thus: 
up-loop-under, swing. When writing the word bell, name 
the letters, care being takcn to allow more time for b than 
for thc others. 



P6E 48 
The first part of q is like a and the last part looks like 
a lower loop. tlowever, if must be pointed out to the 
pupils that this loop is hOt ruade in the saine way as a 
lower loop, although the two strokes do meet af the line. 
Tbe motions n be well described by saying: rounà-àown- 
turn-swing. Naine the letters when practising the word 
/ueen. 

l'-t;E 49 
The f is usually considered the most diflicult smal] 
lctter. The top is an upper loop. and the bottom part, 
which should be of the saine size, is ruade like the last 
part of q. Some pupils will experience a little trouble in 
making the down stroke straigbt, owing to ifs length 
and the similaritv of direction of the two loops. Each 
loop is a modification of a left oral, therefore there is a 
tendency fo make the down stroke round instead of 
straight. A little slower speed will overcome this. 
Courir: up-Ioop-dou'n-turn-wing. When practising the 
word naine the letters, giving ample rime for making the 
f and the r. 

PAGE 50 
The pupils will readily recognize that the first part of 
: is the over motion and the las part is the down loop. 
In order that there may be no connective loop formed 
when joining the top part to the bottom, it is necessar fo 
check the motion at the base line. So the count shou]d 
be: over-stop-loop. In writing the word zoo there are 
three pause:: one in the z as indicated, and one ai the top 
,»f each o. 



PE 51 
This lesson is a preparatio ïor the sentence that 
ïollows o pae 52. Biç round o-u-r is the couut. 
PAGE 5 
The instructions given for the writing of any previous 
sentence may be applied hcre. In regard to the omission 
of the last stroke of the s in is, itis tobe clearly under- 
stood that, as far as the development of the writing nove- 
ment is concerne& there is no gain in either putting it on 
or leaving it off. But as far as neatness is concerned, 
there is a decided ain in }eaving it off epecia}}y when it 
is necessary to put a certain mmber of word in a some- 
what limited space. This applies to the omission of any 
initial or final strokes. 
PAGE 53 
The digits should be I»ractised fir»t in the order given 
in the white-on-black copy. Yhen the pupils are able to 
make them easily and well, they should write them in their 
replat order. Teach them fo be careful of the size of 
the fires and the spacing between them. 
The following is the count to be used in praetising the 
digits : 
.str«igb t-doyen 
4.straigb t-«cross, sr«dh t 
O.round-o 
.dou'n4oop 
7.t ic'-cu rr c-s  ra i g b t 
9.--round-straig t 
3.loop-round-round. or oop-swing-swing 
5.straigbt-round, «cross (This stroke muet tou«h the 
initial one.) 
.oop-roundJoop 
8.rou nd4oop-up. 
4w 



XV. tIOW TO TEACII MOVEMENT EXERCISE$ 
The aire of all instruction in writing, as has been saic] 
before, is to teach pupils a proper writing movement, so 
that they may write freely, easily, and legibly. For the 
rapid development and establishment of this movement no 
mcthod has ever been used that is the equal of general- 
movcment exerciscs. The motions employcd in them are 
very simple and continuous, so that the pupils can con- 
centrate their attention on the mechanics of writing-- 
p.Jsture, pen-holding, and the position of the paper. The 
mind is hot conccrned with the making of intricate curées 
and angles. The attention is chiefly directed to low the 
exercises are being done. Con.equently, there is a rapid 
development of fle writing movement. 
These general movement exereises--straig]tt line, left 
and rigltt oral--furnish sufiïeient variety, if ruade large 
ad small, compact and retraeed, fo prevent the work 
beeoming monotonous to the pupils. H,wever, should there 
be any tendencv in this direction, it may easily be ehecked 
bv tbe tact and the enthusiasm of the teaeher. 

STII, AIGIIT-LINE EXERCISE 
As soon as the pupils know how to sit properly, how 
to hold tbe pcn correctly, and how to place the paper in 
correct position on the desk, the next step is learning how 
to make the straight-linc cxercise. 
It is advisable to use thc blunt end of the pencil at 
first, except in the higher grades, where a dr)- pen may be 
used instead. 
Show the pupils how to push the arm up and down 
the line of vision counting 1--3---5-6-7-8-9-10. for a re- 
traced excrcise. When they are ablc o make thcse easily 
and correcfly fle pencil .hould bc reverse& h ordbr that 



STRAIGHT-LINE EXERçISE 45 

the pupils' minds may not be diverted fr-m the meehanieal 
part of the'work, it is a good plan to make hall the exercise 
in the air (off the pai, cr ) and the othcr hall on thc paper. 
The courir fo be uscd is : 1-2-.3---5-down-1-2-3---5. At the 
word down the pencil is allowcd to touch the l)aper, and 
le remaining rive down strokes arc ruade on the paper. 
This mcthod also is valuablc iu rclieving the tension re- 
sulting froln gripping flc pencil when making strokes on 
papcr. The word light repcatcd at thc saine mcasurc as 
in the case of thc digits will al»o (..untcra«t lhc tcndcn«v 
make the lines hcavv. 
Firs .ok pupils shouhl nmke ollC ]lUlldl'çd 
strokes a minute at first, and bv a gradual inerease shouhl, 
af the end of their year, lnake one hundred and fiftv. 
Second Book pupils should bc quite capable of nlaking 
hundred strokes a nlinute bv the rime flley are ready for 
promotion to the Third Book. Practically, no increase in 
si,ced above this mark is necessary for any pupils. A pro- 
I, ortionafe speed applied in the nlakin.e of letters and 
words will produce writing sufficientlv rapid for ail 
I,ractical purposes. 
In the eoml,aet straight-line exercise, care must be 
takcn to sec that the pal)er is properly adjusted (Illus- 
tration 2, page 6). IIave the pupils swing the pen along 
the blue line, then more the top corner of the paper so as 
to correct any deviation from the right position. Divide 
the lines into four equal spaees of about two inches each. 
Let the pupils more their hands backward and forward 
along an imaginau line of vision, without touching the 
paper. 31en thc teacher bas countcd 1-2-3--5, the word 
down should be given, as a signal for the pencil fo corne 
in contact with the paper. This should take place whilc 
the pencil is in motion. By moving to the right a littlc 



4; WRITING 

in making each succeeding down stroke, one hundrcd down 
strokcs should be ruade in each quarter section in one half 
of a minute. Before commcncing the second section the 
paper should be moved toward the left, to take advantage 
«,f the ideal writing location mentioned previously on 
page 18. 
At first thc pupils will not be able fo make one hundred 
down strokes in cach section. Let them indicate the 
number they bave lnade, say seventy-five, when they come 
fo the dividing linc. By aiming to make the lines doser 
together, it should not take long for every pupil in the 
class to w-rite the required one hundred strokes in each 
(luartcr. qacn thc pupi]s can make this number af the 
correct speed, they will have the satisfaction of knowing 
rb.er arc improving. Thcy are getting control over the 
movement. 
.qh»uld the lines appear too heavy, it is an indication 
that the pupil is putting too much pressure on the pen or 
h«dding it too tightly. Thc fine, ligh lines that are so 
dcsirable can be attained onlv by holding the pen as 
looselv as possible, and allowing it to touch the paper 
lightly and dclicatcly. The teacher must be vigilant in 
warning against the haMt of gripping the holder. The 
pupils addictcd fo thi. can never expect fo develop a free, 
casy, swinging movcmcnt. As this movemcnt is the 
objective in teaching writing, and as the straight-line 
cxercise plays an important part, practice on if should not 
be discontinued until the pupils can do the following: 
(1) IIold the pen without gripping, (2) make the 
standard .peed, (3) make one hundred strokes in each 
section. 



 VAI.S 

OVALS 
The oral has been a favourite Inoveinent drill for years 
aInong writing instructors, because of ifs siinplicity and 
case in exccution. It consists in the repctition of a sort 
of circular Inotion which pupils always find easy to make. 
A little practice soon makes the Inotion automatic, and 
then the thoughts nmy be conccntratcd llrgely on the 
mechanics of writing, hl thi. wav the foundation of a 
proper writing Inovemcnt is laid. 
As soon as the Inovement bas becoine autoinatic, or 
nearly so, the characteristie features of the oals should be 
brought fo the attention of thc pupils by questions or sug- 
gestions as to the slant, relative width, and relative height. 
The first ovals should be Inade with a retraced 
straight-line exercise as a support. This gives theIn the 
proper slant. The slant is determined by drawing a line 
froin the Iniddle point of the top fo the Iniddle point of 
the bottoin. When folded or cut along this line, the two 
sections should correspond. (Page 8, Book III) 
Before cominencing the actual practice of file oral, bave 
the pupils swing over the copy on page 8 a nuInber of 
tiines with a dry pen, in order to sense the motion. Then 
bave them inake the straight-line exercise, rive strokes in 
the air and ten on the paper, xN'ext let thein swing around 
the suppoI without touching the paper, to a count of 
1-2-3-4-5. Instead'of saying 6, the teacher should say 
down, whereupon file pcns should be lowered and the ovals 
Inade on the paper ten rimes. 
The rive preliminary swings off the paper give the 
pupils an opporunity to get their lmnds in motion, and fo 
adjust the oral to the correct position around the support. 
At the saine tiine it lavs special stress on how they are 
doing the exercise, hot on whd thev arc doing. A good 



method of counting for this exercise is to say: Straight 
1-2-3-$-5-dow-1-2-3-$-5-6-7-8-9-10 ; 'oud 2-3-4-5-doum- 
1-2-3--5-6-7-8-9-10. This will ensure that all the pupils 
do about the saine arnount of work in the sarne tilne. 
Should ,SOlnC of the pupils rnake the ovals toc narrow 
(Plate I, 1 below) the teacher should dernonstrate that 
they are using toc rnuch straight-line lnotion and hot 
cnough circular motion. Another fault rnay be sornêwhat 
cornrn«,n--the ovals toc, wide, as in (2) bclow. This is 
the result of toc rnuch circular nmtion and hOt enough 
straight-line motion. The oval. should be al)out three 
fourths a, wide as they are high. In sorne cas the ovals 
will be rnade as in (3) below. The probable cause of this 
is that the pupil. are hOt pulling the strokes foward the 
rniddle of the b«,dy, but rather toward the left elbow. 

0 -:." "0 ............... 
PLATE I 

As soon as the pupils can make thc retraced oral 
correctly as t« width and slant, they should be drilled on 
the compact exercise. One plan recornrnended is to place 
a retraccd straight-line exercise as a guide for slant, at 
the beginning of each section. Have the pupils strive for 
lightness and c«nnpactness of line, alto for correct posture 
ad relaxed muscle.. 
Pupils shou],l bc able to do both right and lcft oval. 
with cqual facility. Thc sarne rnethod of drill applics fo 
both. 
Che point cannot be ovêr-ernphasized. Tbe pcn rnust 
always be in motion hcfore corning in contact with the 
paper. Otherwise finger rnovernent rnay re.ult. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 49 

XVI. HOW TO TEACtI CAPITAL LETTERS 
Every lesson shouh! have a definite purpose. That 
purpose may be thc teaching of a lcttcr, a word, or a 
sentence; or it may bc the devch»pmcnt of movemcnt or 
rhvthmic measure, or thc ]ncreasc of spccd. Conscqucntl,', 
êvery lesson should have a dcfin]tc plan, and evcry exercisc 
in it should bca part of the plan. The following order is 
quite commonly u.*ed : 
. Genera]-movcmênt practice 
2. Special characteristics of the h.ttcrs noted 
3. Practice on the lctter 
4. Faults noted, f'c, mparison with the eopy 
5. Practice fo ovcrcome the fault 
6. Specd practice 
ï. Time test. 
GI2OUP ONE 
Capital 0 : 
Owinzfo its similarity fo thc left oral, flae capital 0 
is commonly agreed upon as the best letter with which fo 
commence the application of movement te. form. Xatur- 
ally, then, the lesson should commence with a review of 
the left oval. A line of the compact exereise wouM pro- 
vide the necessary preliminary or preparatoç" proeess fo 
enable the pupil. fo assume correct posture, pen-holding," 
and position of the paper. The retraced oral gives crac- 
tice in the saine movement as that used in the letter itself. 
Using the eopy in the Ontario l|'ritin.q Coitrses as the 
model, the pupils should be questioned as fo the special 
charaeteristies of the O: (1) shapc. (?) size, (3) width, 
(4) shape of the loop, (5) size af tho loop, () direction 
of the la.t stroke. 
Aetual praetice on the letter should begin by retracing 
the copy with a dry pen. Next, let the pupils make a left 



50 WRITING 

oral to a eount of rive off the paper and nine on. On the 
tenth eount, make the eharaeteristie loop at the top, in- 
stead of eontinuing on around the oral. Using the words 
loop or swing nmy help some 1)upils to make the last 
stroke by giving a conscious direction fo the movement. 
The count for the oral mav be reduced later to rive and 
eVell [o tbree, but tbe initial rive off the pal)er should be 
eontinued. 
The next step is the making of the letter itself. Have 
the pupils make a retraced left oral off the paper to a 
count of 1-2-A-clown. Then the pens touch the paper 
while ¢he teacher eounts 1-2, 1-1oop, 1-swing, or round O. 
The 0 thus formed should be retraced rive or six rimes. 
A good way fo count for this practiee is to say: 1-2-8- 
clown-l-I, 1-2-3-clown-l-2, 1-2-3-clown-l-8, etc. 0ne or 
two lines ruade in this way should overeome any nervous- 
ness and timidity. Then the letter may be practised 
separately. 
When the pupils have ruade about one quarter of a 
page of individual letters, bave them piek out the most 
prominent faults. The lnost eomlnon ïaults are illustrated 
in Plate ]I. Then instruet them how to overeome the 
faults, either by question or by demonstration. 

ILATE II 

The fau]t in (1) consists in a sacrifice of speed for the 
sake of form, and the use of finger movement instead of 
muscu]ar movement; in (2) the letter is too narrow; 
more circular motion is needed ; and in (3) the loop drops 



C kPITAI, LETTER 51 

down too far--about one third of the height of the letter is 
the proper distance. Number (4) shows too much pressure 
on the pen. The phrase light line uttered at the correct 
rate of speed will overcome this fault. In (5) th.e fini.ch- 
ing loop is too large. 
If pupils arc taught to practise in this wav they 
receive a twofold benefit. In addition to lcarning how to 
make good lettcrs they also learn how to study and criticise 
writing. This eventually establishes the habit of self- 
criticism, one of the most potent influences in the creation 
of good handwriting. 
To arrive at thc number of lcttcrs that should bc 
vritten in the speed test, allov two counts for the 0 and 
one for the transition movenent, a total of three. If this 
number is divided into two hundred (the standard number 
of down strokcs ruade in the movemcnt cxercises in a 
minute), it is found that about sixt3"-six would be the 
standard speed for thc 0. At first, sixtv letters a minute 
is fast enough, vith a very gradua] increase until he 
standard number is reached. 
During the thne the pupils are practising, the teaeher 
should be inspecting the work as rapidly as possible. 
Common faults in form. incorrect movement, irregular 
speed, and improper pen-holding should be quiefly 
corrected. Wherever possible, encouragement shou]d be 
given, not onl.v for success, but especially for effort. 
Those pupils vho find it difficult to apply muscular more- 
ment need all the encouragement that can be given. 
Capital C : 
As all the lines in C are curved and ruade directly 
from the left oval, it is usually considered an easy letter 
to learn. Practice on the two-space compact left oval and 
on the one-space retraced left oral should be preliminary 



to practice on the C. A line or two of the half-space 
compact oral on Page 17, Book III, would also prove 
beneficial, as if vould help fo give control over the more- 
ment. 
The special ïeatures that thc attention of the pupils is 
fo be directcd fo are: 
1. The curved strokes forming the loop, 
q. The ]enth of the loop. 
3. The parallelism of the two down strokes." 
As soon as the pupils have notcd tlm special features, 
have them practise making a small half-space retraced 
-val without touching the pcn o the paper, fo a courir of 
1-2-.3-do«. Af thc command do« the pcn .hould drop 
to the papcr and ïorm the small loop. and without any 
check in the movement go on and ïorm rive one-space 
«,vals. Count 1-2-3-«1ow-1-2-3-.-.;-6. This drill should 
l,c continucd until tbe pupils have become accustomed fo 
the form and the motion u.¢cd in nmking if. 
In making the individual ]etters itis a]ways advisable 
to have the pen form in thc air one, -o. «r three small 
«,vals about the size of the loop. so that hc pen vill be in 
motion whcn it ce»mes in contact with the .paper. There 
i. another advantage dcrived ïrom pracice of this kind. 
If enables thc pupil to .i»a«.e the l«,tters more evcnly, thus 
adding ncat»e.¢.¢ and ordcr  the appearance of the page. 
Count 1-2-clowns-l-2. 
The mo.¢t «'ommon fault. t« bc awi«h,d in makinz hi. 
lcttcr are illu.¢trat«,d in Pla III. 

PL.kTE III 



CAPITAL LETTERS 5.{ 

In (1) the lettcr was ruade slvwly and with finzcr 
movement; in (2) the first stroke is made in thc wrong 
direction; in (3) thc C is too fiat. 
The pupils must undcrstand that though form is 
important, thc chicf objective of thc tcaching at this 
juncture is to devclop and establish a free, swinging, 
muscular movemcnt. Tlmugh the C in (1) more ncarly 
approximates thc correct form of the letter, yet from the 
standpoint of g«»od writing it represcnts thc worst fault 
of any in the Plate. Free, easy writing will nevcr corne fo 
any pupil who persi.¢ts in practising in the manner 
indicatcd. 
The number of C's fo be nmdc in a minute is ab«mt 
sixty. This numbcr i.¢ found bv dividing the numl)cr of 
ovals ruade in a minute by three. This latter number is 
ruade up of 1-2 for the C and 1 for changing from one 
letter to another. In a test for spced not more than one 
preparatory oral would be necessary. If should, however, 
be understood that a test is hot to see just how fast the 
pupils can write, but to find out if thev are writinff at the 
standard rate. 
Capital .t : 
Before eommeneing the general-movement drill, sec 
that the paper is in correct position hy swinging the pen 
across the line. Then have the pupils make a line of both 
the large compact straight line and the ]cft oral. 
The main eharaeteristics of the .1 should be brought 
ont by questioning the clas.. These arc: (1) The curved 
dowrt stroke, which conforms somcwhat fo the left oral 
(see Ontarfo Writing ('o«rse.Q ; (? the up stroke, which 
is-almost straizht, and whi«h v«,nneets with thc initial 
stroke; (3) the slightly curved down stroke, which drops 
a little below the line. 



54 WRITING 

The left oral forms thé basis of the A ; so the pupils 
should be drilled on a retraced oral for some time, the 
count being from one to ten for cach. Impress upon them 
tbe necessitv of having tbc ]»en in motion beforc coming 
in COl»tact with the paper. Thus it is always neeessary to 
make o»e r two ovals in tb(. air before aetually for»ing 
the A. 
The fir.-_'t praetiee on the A should be made inside the 
left oral. Swing the pen aromd tbe ov'l once or twiee, 
then let if toueh the paper at the top of the oral. Follow 
the oral about half-wav down. When the base line is 
reaehed, the pen turns in a sharper eurve, with the result 
that the up stroke passes through the centre of the oral 
Tbe final stroke follows the up stroke about one hall the 
wav down. Here if eommenees fo eurve gently toward the 
right and ends, finally, just below the base line. 
The eount for the .4 should be: 1-2-clown-I, , with a 
slight pause at the eomma, so that a loop will hot be 
ï«rmed bv the la.t two strokes. 
The most eommon ïaults round in makin the .4 are 
eemplified in Plate IV. 

]PLATE I¥ 

In (1) the pen touches the paper on the up stroke. In 
(2) no pause is ruade at the top of tbe up stroke, con- 
sequently a loop is usually ruade. In (3) the pen is hot 
pushed up far enough to meet the initial stroke at the 
starting-point. In (4) the initial stroke is marie in the 
wrong direction. More pull toward the middle of the 
body will offset thi. tendeney. 



CAPITAL LETTER,q 5.5 

As the .1 is ruade t,, tw,, counts, like the 0 and the C, 
naturally the saine number should be ruade in a minute-- 
sixty. Of course, by gradually counting faster, the number 
of A's the pupi]s may make in a minute may be increasefl 
fo seventy or more. 
If we kcep in mind the aire of out instruction--the 
establishment of neat, reçu]af, ]cgible writing--we mus, use 
whatever means we can, hot only fo create a good writing 
movement, but also t,) gain control over if. The diminish- 
ing exercises on Pages 10 and 11, and fhe diminishing 
letters on Pages 16, 17, 18, and 19. will be found fo be of 
great value in gaining coutrol over the movement. The 
letters of different size should be retraced a number of 
rimes belote proceeding fo the next. Then they should be 
ruade scparately, in succession, until the half line is 
completed. 

Capital E : 
The preparato" drill preceding the E should consist 
of a line or two of the large and small retraeed left ovals. 
The special characteristics of the letter are, (1) the 
small loop, dot, or tick at the beginning, (2) the small 
left oral above the line, and (3) the larger oral forming 
the bottom of the letter. It should also be noted that the 
little connective loop rests on an imaginary line half-way 
dOWI1 o 
As the E'eommenee3 with onlv a dot or  small oral. 
if is quite hard fo get a preparatory movement small 
enough fo be of much benefit in making if. Therefore, all 
we ean do is fo use an o.val motion about one quarter of a 
space high. tiare the pupils, keeping the dry pen in 
motion, swing over the lefter until they get the feel of if, 
counting 1-2-8 or dot-l-2. 



56 WRITIN6 

The more general faults arc illustrated iii Plate V. 

I'L3.T E V 

1. The top oral is too wide or fiat. 
2. The initial loop is mu«h too large. 
3. The letter i. lnade too x ertical. 
4. The bottera aval is too large. 

The pul)ils shouhl ahvavs hare the copy in front of 
them. C'are must be taken to impress on them that the 
OMario ll'riting Course is to be kcpt af the saine angle as 
thc OMario Bl,ud" ll'riting Book, othcrwisc the pupils may 
bc looking at thc COl,y from an incorrect angle, and natur- 
Mlv wou]d be trying to rcprodîaee on the paper the letter 
as it appears fo them. 
Sinee thc E is ruade to a courir of 1-2-3, it ïollows that 
onlv forty-five fo fiftv should he lnade in a minute. Too 
rapid a movement will rêsult in illeible letters; and too 
sl,,w a movement will permit an improper use of the 
finers. 
GROUP TWO 
The letter. in this group are all ruade frein the indirect. 
or right, oral. If the pupils have net alreadv, acquired 
seine skill in making llis oral. it will be necessary te spend 
seine rime in drilling them on it. When we consider that 
about one half of the capital alphabet mav be ruade with 
tire right oral as a baste movement, and tat all the orer 
motion used in making the small lctter.¢ i.¢ a modification 
of it, we can see the necessity of acquiring mastery over if. 



CAPITAL LETTER. 57 

Do not allow the pupils to commence the letters in this 
group until they can do the right oral almost as well as 
they can the left. 

Capital h r: 
The attention of the pupils should be drawn fo thc 
distinguishing features of the N. These are: (1) The 
size and shape of the initial loop; (2) the rounded top of 
the stem; (3) the almost straight down stroke; (4) the 
rounded top of the second part, which is slightly shorter 
than the first; (5) the eompound curve in the last stroke. 
This last stroke is quite similar fo the last stroke in A. 
The preparatory drill should eonsist of a line of the 
large compact and retraced right ovals. Next, the pupil. 
should practise the large capital stem inside the retraced 
oral. This is best donc by making in the air a small right 
oral about the size of the loop to a eount of 1-2-3-clown. 
At the word down, the pens should touch the paper at the 
middle of the top of the oral, then form the loop and 
continue through the oral until they reach the middlc 
point af the bottom. When the stem is ruade in this wav 
the eount is 1-2-3-clown-l-2. 
When the pupils can make the stem af the correct rate 
of speed, they should then try the letter. The eount for 
the _N is 1-2-clown, 1-2-3, with a short pause at the eomma, 
so as to obviate the making of a loop (which, by the way, 
is hot eonsidered a great fault in either the X or the M). 
l,Text, there should be praetiee on the one-spaee letters, 
retracing them a number of rimes, in order to give the 
neces.ary freedom of movement and confidence fo the 
pupils. 



58 

Plate VI illustrates the most conlnmn faults in this 
h, ttcr. 

PLATE VI 

1. The ïault lies in the exceedingly large loop. 
2. The stem swings too far to the left. lit should meet 
the base line af a point directly under the left 
edge of the loop. 
3. The second part is much too large. 
4. The top of the second part i. pointed instead of 
r«,unded. 
5. The second part is too short. 

The numbcr of N's to be ruade in a minute tan be 
easily COml,uted by dividing four into two hundred. This 
number may be slightly increased 1,y counting more 
rapidly, but we must not sax.rifice legibility for the sake of 
speed. 

Capital M : 
The Mis so similar fo the N that it is hardly necessarv 
t,» do more than note its characteristic features. The. first 
two parts are exaetly like those in N. The third part is 
of the saine shape and width as the second, but it is some- 
what shorter. The degree of gradation is the saine for 
he last two parts. 
In addition fo the large retraced oral and straight- 
line exercise on Page 39, Book III. the extended exercise 
in the second section will be round a valuable one for 
cultivating thc lateral movement used in making the M. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 59 

When the pupils can makc thc last two drill. .n t]liS page, 
they should have no difficulty in making a well-formcd 
letter. Thc parts of these drills should be equally spaccd, 
and in the sc(.ond drill the parts should bc diminishcd by 
the sanie amount. 
The count for the M should bc 1-2-àowz-1-2, 3-4. At 
first the pause af the comma should be quite noticeable, 
but. when the pupils can make a wcll-formed M, the pause 
may be aIpreciably shortened. 
The errors most commonly made are illustrated in 
Plate VII. 

PLATE 

1. This shows the M too widc. 
2. The parts, instead of getting shorter, increasc in 
height. 
3. The last two parts drop too low. 
4. The tops are pointed, instead of being rounded. 

The nunlber of M's fo be ruade in a minute is deter- 
mined bv dividing rive into two hundred. This gives us 
fortv. The rive is ruade up of the necessary four count. 
required for the M, and one for the change fo the succeed- 
ing letter. 

Capital W: 
The first part of the W is almost identical ith the 
stem used in making the N or the M. There is one slight 
difference--a little more curve in the last part. 

5W 



60 

The other important point tobe noted is the height 
of thc second part and that of the finished stroke. The 
ïormcr is highcr than the stem part, and the latter is 
about two thirds as high as the lettcr itself. All the 
strokcs iu the W are curvcs, although some writers make 
the down strokc in the second part straight. 
Tbc prêliminary practice should be a drill on the right 
oral, both one-space and two-space. The large, graded 
compact excrcise on Page 40, Book III, is intènded for 
the purpose oï gaining command over the movement, as 
well as ïor getting the sense or feel of the motion fo be 
usefl.. 
For the W the count shou]d be: 1-2-down-1-2-3-.. 
Have thc 1,upils check the movcment at the base line, at 
tbe eount 2. 
As this lctter requires four counts, naturally the 
numbcr ruade in a minute will bc forty. 
In Plate ¥III are illustrated the errors commonly 
ruade by pupils. 

PLATE VIII 

1. The up stroke is curved the wrong way. 
2. The top of the second part is too low and the final 
stroke is too long. 
3. The points at the bottom arc too close together. 
4. The stem is swung too far to the left. 
Capital Q : 
This ]errer is so similar to the fiemare o that prae.tieally 
no one will experience any trouble in making it. Ail the 



CAPITAL LETTERS 61 

strokes are curves; and the movement used is continuous, 
so that the lctter is complcted without any check in the 
motion. Thc only part that requires spccial attention is 
the fiat loop at the base line. Note that this loop ext¢,nds 
much ïarther fo the left than the stcm of all letters ruade 
heretofore. The last stroke drops below the base line. 
As the movement exercises to be used as preparatory 
drills are given in thc Ord«rio 1Vritbg ('o«rses, it is quite 
unnecessary fo refer fo them except in some spccial 
instances. 
The Q is ruade to a count of three. Thc two pre- 
paratory ovals off thc paper should hot bc omitted. Whcn 
made in this way the number of O's written in a minute 
will be from thirty-five fo forty ; but wbcn only one count 
is used in changing from one letter te» another, the pupils 
will be able fo makc fifty in the saine rime. 
Most of the aults in connection with the Q occur in 
ïorming the fiat loop. These faults appear in Plate IX. 

PLATE IX 

1. The loop has an angle instead of a curve. 
2. The loop is too long and fiat. 
3. The loop is too large. 
4. Thc letter was ruade slowly and with finger move- 
mcnt. 
5. Thc pcn came fo a full stop before being liftcd from 
thc paper. It shotld be raised from the paper 
while thc hand is in motion. 



62 

Capital Z : 
The first part of the Z is ruade like the (J. The main 
feature in it--the connective loop--is ruade fiat, but is hot 
,o long as the corresponding loop in the preceding letter. 
The final stroke forms a lower loop about three quarters 
as long as the upper part of the letter. Note that the parts 
of this loop meet at or near the base line. The number of 
counts required in writing the Z is three. Should this 
seem a little too fast for the class, the teacher need not 
hesitate to make the count 1-2-3-., the up stroke receiving 
the final eount. Considered iii this way, the count for the 
Z wou]d be 1-2-down-1-2-3-_. 
()n account of the lettcr beillg ruade up exelusive]y of 
('Ul'Ves, it affords cxcellcut practice iii the application of 
m.v(«ncut t, f,,rm. Altllougll it is uscd but little in 
actual wrifing, e, nsideral)le rime S]lould be devoted fo it. 
owing fo the skill derived from practising it. 
The faults that occur in writing the Z arise usuallv 
from uncontrolled movement. These are illustrated in 
Plate X. 

PLATE X 

1. The connective loop is too large. 
?. The lower loop is too large. 
3. The lower loop is ruade too vertically. 

From forty to fiftv Z's should be made in a minute. 
according fo the number of counts àevoted fo the letter. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 

63 

Capital X : 
This lettcr is a combination of thc capital stem and 
the figure 6. A unique t'eature about itis that it should 
bc as perfect an X upsidc down as it is right side up. In 
consequcnce, the initial and final loops must bc alike. 
Another feature that must be noted is thc short cross 
stroke half-way up, used fo join thc two parts when thcy 
happen not fo touch. 
For preliminary practice there should be a short drill 
on both thc right and the left oral. A good plan of practice 
at first is to retrace the stem part rive or six rimes to a 
count of 1-2-down-1-2, bcforc making the last section of 
the le'ter. This should be retraced an equal numbcr of 
rimes, file saine rhvthnl being used. Afterwards, of course, 
the parts should be ruade in succession. 
As each part requires three distinct heats, with an 
extra beat in changing from the right fo the left oral, it 
follows that the number of X's ruade in a minute will be 
somewhat limited ; possibly hot more than thirty or thirty- 
five tan be ruade in that rime. Thê pupils must hot be 
hurried in changing from one part fo another; but they 
are fo make each section af thê standard rate. 
In Plate XI attention is drawn fo the usual errors 
found in X. 

PLATE 

1. The stem swings too far fo the left. 
2. The final loop is larger than the initial one. 
3. The final loop is smaller than the initial one. 



64 VRITITG 

Capital H : 
Ilere we bave another letter that is a eombination of 
right and left ovals. The prcparatory drill should consist 
«»f a line or two of each. 
IIave the pupils observe thc following «haracteristics: 
(l) The curve at the top of the second part. and (2) the 
shapc and height of thc connective stroke. 
Af first the count for H should be 1-2-down-l-°, for 
each part. Latcr on this may be altercd, as ïewer pre- 
paratory motions arc ruade. 
The habit of kecping thc l»cn in lmJtion shou]d bave 
becomc c.tablished by this rime. The new count may be 
ruade thus : 1-2, 3, , with sufficicnt stop at the first comma 
fo permit of thc transition, and at thc second, to obviate 
thc forming of a le»op at the base line. 
The number of H's that can be written in a minute 
will var)" aceording fo thc numbcr of rimes the pcn ïorms 
the oral in the air, before touching the paper. If we 
utilize the count suggested in the preceding paragraph, we 
shall be able fo writc about thirty in a minute. 
The most comnmn fault. that appear in the H are 
.hown in Plate XII. 

PLATE XII 

1. The stem swins too far to the left. 
2. The down stroke in the second part is straight. 
3. Thc parts arc too close togcther. 
4. The connective loop is too big. 
5. No pause in the second stroke or thc base line. a 
loop resulting. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 65 

Capital K : 
The capital stem as found in the K is exactly similar 
fo that in H. The only ïeature that requires special 
attention is the second part. The top and thc bottom of 
this section are ruade of compound curvcs, joined together 
bv a very small connective loop. This loop also serres fo 
unite the second part fo the first, crossing tbe latter ata 
point about half-way down. Observe that the stem is a 
little shorter than the second section. 
The K requires the saine number of counts as the 1I, 
1-2, 3-$. f'onsequently, the pupils will make about thirtv 
K's in a minute. 
Avoid the faults illustrated in Plate XIII. 

PLATE XIII 

1. The loop is too large. 
2. The connective loop drops down too far. 
3. The second part is made slowly. 
4. The two parts of the lctter are not joinc,1. 

GROUP TYIREE 

The three letters forming this Group are based upon 
the right oval. But the special feature that distinguishes 
them from the letters of the preceding Group is the com- 
pound curve in the stem part. 

Capital V : 
Besides the compound curve in tbe stem, the onlv 
other eharacteristics fo be noted are: (1) The narrow, 



rounded turn at the bottom; and (2) the compound curve 
in the up stroke. Observe that this last stroke does hot 
corne up as high as the stem part. 
Until the pupils can make a good compound stem such 
as we have on Page 52,, Book III, it would be advisable to 
revert to the practice of making the preparatory more- 
ment off the paper. At first, then, thc count for l" will 
be 1-2-clown-l-2-3. Later on, merely counting 1-2-3 
should be sufficicnt. 
If the pupils are maintaining the standard speed, they 
should write fifty V's a minute. 
Teach th pupils to avoid the ïaults shon in Plate 
XIV. 

PLATE X1W 

1. The la.et stroke i.q too long. 
2. There i.q an anle at the bottom, instead of a turn. 
3. The turn at the bottom is too big. 
4. The last stroke is too short. 
CaIital U : 
The fir.t part is similar to that in l', whfle the last is 
,luite like that in the capital A. The turn at the bottom 
of the U is broad and round, the up stroke is compara- 
tively straight and the final stroke curves gently toward 
the right and fini.qhes just below the base line as in 
A anà h r. 
Impress upon the pupils the necessity for keeping the 
pen in mtion, both on and off the paper. It is the only 
way to cu]tivate a free, swinging movement, and to acquire 
the touch necessary to produce light, smooth lines. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 67 

With this in mind it is well to allow one or two 
counts before the pen cornes in contact with the papcr. 
Count 1-2, 3 for the U, pausing slightly at the comma, so 
as to prevent the making of a loop on the final stroke. 
]Iake about forty U's in a minute. 
Correct such faults as appear in Plate XV. 
PLATE XV 

1. The turn at thc base is too broad. 
2. The turn at the base is too anular. 
3. The up stroke is too high. 
4. There is a loop in lhe last part. 
Capital ]" : 
The pupils will readily recognize the similarity between 
the strokes in U and those in ]'. The main distinguish- 
ing features are those in the long straiglt down strokc, 
and the lower loop. Notice the apparent parallelism in 
the two down strokes, also the comparative height and 
width of the upper and Iower loops. 
In view of the fact that this letter is almost two spaces 
high, il will be necessary fo use a large, free mo'ement, if 
we expect to make it successfully. Allow the pupils fo 
practise freely on the two-space straight-Iine exercises, in 
preparation for the long stroke in Y. 
While counting îor some of the letters and exercises, 
the teacher will have noticed, no doubt, that the saine 
amount of lime is hot given to some exercises as to others, 
although apparently they have the saine number of down 
strokes. This is due fo a difference in emphasis, depend- 



68 VRITIXG 

ing largely upon fhe daracter of fhe strokes, the turns 
and angles, and whether the motion is continuous or 
broken. 
The :}" may be ruade to a count of 1-2, 3, but if some 
pupils find if difiïcult fo apply this rhythm fo the letter, it 
would be wise fo add another count for the up stroke. 
The rime would then be measured by counting 1-2, 3--. 
Considering the length of the letter and the check in 
the movement the number of Y's ruade in a minute 
should be about thirty-five. Persistent practice will enable 
the pupils fo write fortv or more Y's in the rime specified. 
Avoid the faults in Plate XVI. 

PLATE 

1. The second part extends too far up. 
2. The second part is too short. 
3. The down stroke is pulled too far fo the left 
4. Exeess of finger movement has broken or bent the 
down stroke. 

GROUP FOUR 
This Group consists of three letters--P, 1, and ]3. The 
basic movements employed in making them are the 
straight line and the right oral. As a preparatory drill 
for each of these letters there should be praetice on each of 
these general-movement exercises. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 69 

Capital P: 
I[ave the pupils observe the special features found in 
P. The down stroke is straight. The u 1) strokc retraces 
the initial stroke through about half its length, and theu 
swings round in an oral about hall the height of the 
letter. This oral mu.t be closed; that i.% the finishing 
stroke of the oral must touch thc two prcvious stroke.. 
When making the P, care mu.t bc takcn hot to make a 
loop instead of rÇtracing the down stroke. The best way 
fo ohviate doing this is to pause slightly at the base belote 
commeneing the up stroke. The count f«»r thc letter then 
will be 1, 2. The number of letters ruade in a minute 
should be from fifty to sixty, dcpending upon the timc 
spent in preparatory movement. 
The most common faults arc shown in Plate XVI I. 

PLATE XVlI 

1. The oral is too big and fiat. 
2. Thc oral is hot colnpletcd. 
3. Thc down stroke i. hot retraccd cnough. 
4. Thc final strokc is ruade" in thc wrong direction. 

Capital R : 
The first part of thc R is exacfly like the P, and the 
last stroke is the saine as the final stroke in K. Thc only 
features which the pupils need notice specially are the size, 
slant, and relative position of the small connective 
The count for R is 1, 2-3. Therefore the number of R's 
that should bc ruade in a minute is from fort)" to fifty. 



0 WRIT1-NG 

Avoid the faults in Plate XVIII. 

PLATE XVIII 

1: The down stroke is hot retraced far enough. 
2. The connective loop does hot touch the stroke. 
3. The oral is too big and /lat. 
4. The final stroke is too long. 
Capital B : 
Thc B is ver:)- simi]ar in construction fo the çwo pre- 
ceding letters. The special characteristics to observe are: 
(1) The two right ovals forming the right half of the 
letter, (9,) the position and slant of the connective loop, 
and (3) the final hook. If is well fo point out that a line 
drawn as a tangent ouching the right-hand edge of each 
oral will be paralIel with çhe stem. Count 1, :?-8, $, and 
make about hirty-five to forty B's in a minute. 
The misakes to be avoided in making the B are illus- 
trated in Plate XIX. 

PLATE 
1. The stem is hot retraced sufficientlv. 
2. The top oval is wider than the bttom one. 
3. The lower loop is wider than the upper one. 
4. The last stroke swings oo far through. 
5. The connective loop is too large. 
HiSTORICAI_ C,, 



CAPITAL LETTERS 71 

GROUP FIVE 
The two letters in this Group, I and J, are groupêd 
together on account of the similarity between thc tops of 
the letters. The same motion is used in making this part 
in both letters. 
Capital I : 
A crjtical analysis of the I will show thc following 
to be the chief characteristics: (1) The curved up stroke, 
(2) the narrow turn at thc top, (3) thc sliTtly eurvetl 
down strokc ending in a broad turn corrcsponding to the 
arc of the oral, and (4) thc final hook similar to that in 
the B. 
Makc a comIm«t right oral as a l»r,'lmrat,»ry ,lrill f,,r 
the I. Ncxt. make a retraced right oral, and without lift- 
ing the pen swing down through the oral fo the left of thc 
centre and finish with a hook, as shown ,,n Page 51. 
Book II. 
Another excellent exercise for practice in connection 
with the I is round on Page 82, Book II. Besides estab- 
lishing the motion used in making the letter, if also results 
in giving eommand over a complicated movement. 
Count 1-2, 3 for the I. and make from forty-five to 
fifty capital I's a minute. 
Avoid the faults indicated in Plate XX. 

PLATE XX 

1. The initial stroke should start at the base line. 
2. The turn at the bottom is too long. 
3. The three lines should meet at a point. 
4. The oral part is too wide. 



Capital J : , 
]3efore beginning the discussion of the J it would be 
well to' remind the pupils of the value of maintaining a 
correct writing position. Sec fo if that the paper is held 
correctly, by swinging the pen across the line and then 
adjusting the top corner of the paper. 
In the J the part above the line is quite simflar in 
movement and shape to the upper part of I. There is onc 
slight difference---the turn in the latter is narrower than in 
the former. In the J the loop is approximately half thc 
width of the oral. The lower loop resembles the corre- 
sponding part in I'. Comparing the lower loop with the 
upper, we find if to bc approximately half as wide and 
two thirds as long. 
-Iake a right oral, one space high, refraced. Without 
checking the movement, swing down through the base line, 
and finish with a lower loop. (Sec Page 83, Book II.} 
As soon as the pupils can make this exereise successfully 
they should practise making the letter without the aid of 
the oral. 
The count for the J is 1-2-.. _Iake from forfy 4o tfty 
letters in a minute. 
Avoid the faults shown in Plate XXI. 

PLATE XXI 

1. The upper loop is oo large. 
2. The lower loop is too large. 



CAPITAL LETTERS 73 

3. The down stroke is too rounded. 
4. The back of the letter is broken, caused by finger 
movement. 

GROUP SIX 
There are only two letters in this Group, and they are 
so much alike that the same in.tructions are applicable to 
both. 
The basic movement for both the T and the F is the 
figure-eight exercise, as it is commonly called. (See Page 
56, Book Il, and Page 65, Book III.) Beginning af 
top, swing down in a compound curve, then upward in 
another compound curve. The two loops thus formed 
should be of equal size. 
The down stroke of T is a compound curve, ending at 
a point about one third of the way up. The fini.hing 
stroke is a hook similar fo that in B or I. In F, this 
hook is continued through the down stroke at a point mid- 
way of the stem. A short tick completes it. The top 
part commences with a loop like that in the capital stem, 
and is finished with a compound curve. This top part 
does not touch the stem, and should be as far to the left 
of it as it is above it. Always make the bottom part first. 
The movement used in making these two letters is not 
so easy as it looks ; consequently, some time should be spent 
in drilling on them. If is hot wise at any time to leave a 
form only imperfectly learned. The best plan is to learn 
it well, even if if takes more time than was anticipated. 
The count for the T is 1-2, 3--, and for the F, 1-°-3, 
/-5. About forty T's and thirty-five F's a minute should 
be considered a good rate of sped. 



Common faults fo be avoided in l'laie XXII. 

PLATE XXII 

l. The turn is too broad. 
2. The top is too far to the left. 
3. The top is much too big. 
4. The turn at the base line is too angular. 
5. The top is too long. 
;. The tiok on thc F is too large. 
ç. The hook extends too far through. 

GROUP SEVE_N" 
The two letters comprising this Group are ruade with 
the saine basie movement as those in the preeeding .Group. 
The main distinguishing feature between the two Groups 
is an initial up stroke, thus forming a loop somewhat 
similar to that in l. 

Capital S : 
Commence the S on the line. The up stroke must be 
well curved or the letter wil] be too long and too slanting. 
The compound curve crosses the up stroke at a point hall 
the height of the letter. The finishing.stroke is exactly 
similar to that in T. Be sure that the oral part ai the 
bottom is well rounded, not sharp or angular. 
The count for 8 is 1-2, 3. There is a very brief pause 
ai the comma, so that the hook part may_be made on the 



CAPITAL LETTERS 75 

proper slant and without a loop. iake about fifty S's in 
a minute. This number is found by dividing two hundred 
by four. 
The value of the hook finish in such letters as I, B, 
and S will be rêadily undêrstood when the elemênt of spêed 
is takên into consideration. The more pauses we have fo 
make in our writing, the slowêr the writing wfll be. So 
wherevêr if is possible to join one letter to another without 
sacrificing thê legibility, if is a good thing to do so. These 
hook cndings will be round of grêat value for this purposê. 
The common faults in S are illustratêd in Plate XXIII. 

PLATE XXIII 

1. The initial stroke commences below the line. 
2. The lines do hot cross midway. The upper loop is 
too short. 
3. The lines cross too low down. 
4. The turn af the bottom is too angular. 
5. Thê'hook is ruade with a loop. 
Capital L : 
The spêcial fêatures that need fo be noticêd in the L 
are: (1) The initial stroke commences a little more than 
half-way up, (2) the upper loop is a compound curve half 
the length of the letter, and (3) the down stroke is a 
compound curve. Observe also (4) the fiat loop at tire 
bottom similar to that in 0. The final stroke ends below 
the line in a compound curve. 
The courir for L is 1-2-3 or swing-l-2. Makc about 
fiïty L's in a minute. 
6w 



76IVRITING 

It is hot advisable fo join L to a following small letter. 
A good general rule fo follow in writing is to make the 
letters appear equidistant from one another; and this is 
impossible if we attempt to join the final stroke in L or Q 
fo the letter that follows. 
Avoid the faults sho-n in Plate XXIV. 

PLATE XXIV 

1. The lines do hot cross midway. 
2. The up stroke commences in the wrong direction. 
3. The down stroke is almost straight. 
4. The loop at the base line is too round and big. 
5. The fiat loop should not bave an angle in if. 
6. The final stroke does hot end below the base line. 

GROUP EIGIIT 
Although the two remaining letters of tle alphabet 
do hot look mu«h alike, yet there is considerable simi- 
]arity of movement in making them. The basic movement 
in both letters is the left oral. 
Capital G : 
The beginning and ending strokes in G are the saine 
as those in S, although the upper loop in G is a ]ittlc 
longer than that in S. The part of the letter madc on 
the count 0 is the outline of a small left oral, and that 
part comprising the count 3 is a right oral about the saine 
size as the left. Have the pupils study carefu]ly the 



CAPITAL LETTERS 77 

proportions of the letter in the copy, and compare their 
own with it frcquently. It is only by comparison that 
we can hope fo pcrfect our forms, through becoming con- 
scious of our own errors. 
Count 1-2-3,  for G, and make about thirty-five to 
forty copies of thc lctter in a minute. 
Avoid the faults illustrated in Plate XXV. 

PLATE XXV 

1. The ,trokes cross too low down. 
2. Tlle strokes cross too far up. 
3. The initial strokc is not curved l- the left suffi- 
ciently. 
4. There is too much curvc to the left in thc up str0»kc. 
5. The turn at the bottom is sharp instead of round. 

Capital D : 
The down stroke in D is a compound curve. This 
part of the letter is quite like the corresponding stroke in 
L, even to the fiat loop at the base line. The last part 
of D is a left oval, finished exactly in the saine manner 
aS 0o 
Of course, these exercises should be reviewed before 
proceeding to practise the D. 
The courir for the D is 1-2-3 or 1-2-swbg. Make about 
fifty D's in a minute. 



78 WRITII'G 

Avoid the îaults illustrated in Plate XXVI. 

PLATE XX¥I 

1. The first stroke is ruade in the wrong direction. 
2. There is too much compound curve in the first 
.troke. 
3. There is an angle in thc fiat loop. 
-1. The second part of D does not touch the line. 
5. The final loop is too big. 

XVII. HOV" TO TEACH SMALL LETTFRS 
From Pagc 29 to Page 42 detailcd instructions are given 
for tcat'hing thc .mall lctters to Primary Grade pupils. 
These instructions will apply in a general way when 
teaching the saine letters fo pupils in the grades above the 
Primary. Of course, as the pupils become older, there 
will be a gradual increase in speed until the maximum 
tandard rate is reached. There will also be a slight 
wLriation in the rate and the method of counting. Instead 
-f giving a conscious direction fo the strokes through 
describing the motion, the teacher may count for as many 
.trokes as he thinks require spccial emphasis. Care must 
be taken hot fo spoil the rhvthm and fo maintain a speed 
commensurate with the standard required of the grade. 
There are one or two features that require special 
attention in the grades above the Primary. These are 
dcalt within the paragraphs that follow. 
The movement used in making the capitals is gener- 
allv large. In consequence, there is not the necessity for 
such a nicety of control over the movement as is called 



SMALL LETTERS 79 

for in the small letters. The form may deviate considcr- 
ably from the perfect without becoming conspi«,uous, 
cause of the small proportion the deviation bears to the 
whole. On the other hand, a slight deviation in the small 
letters af once becomes apparent. To write in good form 
in the case of the small letters rcquires a highly developed 
precision of movement and conception of form; and this 
the pupils rarely possess. If is evident, therefore, that 
¢he pupils will at first approximate more nearly to 
ap.parent perfection of form in capifal. than in sluall 
letters. But on account of the greater frequency with 
which the small letters rccur, and the consequent greatcr 
amount of practice on them, in rime they will write both 
equally well. However, as absolute perfection is scarcely 
expected, pupils may be able fo apply the movement they 
have acquired in such a way as fo produce letters that are 
comparatively legible and yet fall short of perfection of 
form. 
As a preparation for the greater degree of movement 
control demanded by the small lcttcrs, it is advisable to 
drill thoroughly on the small general-movement exercises, 
such as thc half-space and third of a space straight line 
and ovals. Çnfortunatcly, these exercises are so small 
that they can be ruade with finger movement. Warn the 
pupils against this temptation, and allow no finger more- 
ment, even if thereby they are able fo make the forms 
better and neater. 
When the pupils can do these drills satisfactorily, if 
will be rime fo begin the critical study of the letters in 
the order in which they are given in the Ontario lVritiig 
Courses. As soon as the first letter has been studied, the 
following plan for practising the minimum letters may be 
applied fo if. 



80 WRITING 

Have the paper divided into four equal sections, as 
was done for the capitals. Commencing at the lower left- 
hand corner of the flrst section, make a right curve ending 
a little to the right of thc middle of the line above. 
Bring the pen down to the base line, following the main 
slant, and flnish with a curve similar to the flrst. Count 
for the main strokcs only. The descriptive phrase up-up 
will, in thc beginning, serve the purpose probably better 
/han any other mode of counting. Drill in this way until 
all the pupils can do the exercise easily, rapidly, and 
rhythmically. 
To find if all are doing the work in unison, tap gently 
on the table with a pencil fo indicate the rime, and li.ten 
intently fo the pens moving on the paper. If the teacher 
can hcar the " scratch-scratch, scratch-scratch" of the 
pcns as thcv form the up strokes, without any other sound 
from the pcns t break thc rhythm, he mav be reasonably 
sure that the pupi]s are working in unison. 

PLATE XXVII 

:In Plate XXVII illustrations are given of how fo 
practise i, **, o, and a, according fo the plan described 
above. For o the count may be «p-down-swing, and for a. 
,p-down-,p. 
The aire of practice of this kind is to teach the form 
through a movement that is large enough fo be ruade 
easily. Bv decreasing the size of the letter to two thirds 
of a space and later fo the standard size for all minimum 



letters--one third of a space--the l»Ulùi s wiil gradually 
acquire control over the movcmcnt. 
As soon as the pupils can make thc lcttcr well, they 
should write it in groups. At tirst these groups should 
contain three letters to a section. The wide sl»acing tends 
to develop the latcral movemcnt, and to give control 
through placing the lettcrs at regular, specified points. 
In addition, practising in the manner indicatcd helps t- 
establish the habits of neatness and ordcr--two essentials 
to success in writing. 
Bc careful about the spacing bctwecn the letters. 
Spacing that is too narrow is detrimental to frce more- 
ment, especially with junior pupils. When the spaces are 
very short the letters can be nade easily with fingcr more- 
ment. l'aturallv the pupils prefcr the casier way; and 
nnless the teachèr is alert, they will want to di.¢card the 
muscular movemcnt they have already acquirc,l. 
It is not necessary to go further into d«tail rcgarding 
the small letters. The size of the lettcrs, thc number to 
be written in cach section, and thc correct count for each, 
are all indicated in the Ontario Writing Courses. This 
information, together with what has been said under 
Primary Grade Writing, should be all that the tea«her 
needs in order fo do this work successfully. 

XVIII. HOW TO TEACH WORDS 
It should not be taken for granted that because pupils 
can make movement exercises and letter drills with good 
movement and at the standard rate, and letters and groups 
of letters freely, rapidly, and with good muscu]ar control, 
that they will be able to combine letters into words with 
the same freedom and with like results. Such is not 



82 

always the case. Combining into words letters whieh the 
l,upils bave already practised, requires as much study and 
practiee as the learning of a neç Ietter. There are many 
things to be noted. The size of the letters, the spaces 
bet'een them, the initial and ending strokes, and the 
general appearance of the word must be carefully 
observed. 
To write words well presupposes che possession of 
consideral,le muscular eontrol as well as a good conception 
of tortu. t follows, then, that the best plan is to practise 
a few simple words with the letters of which the pupils are 
already familiar. By tbis method the mind is free fo con- 
centrate largely on the movement used and on gaining 
oontrol over it. If difficult words are selected, the pupil 
is forced fo think too much of what he is doing, and 
neglects the means ly which he does if. To select new 
words with unfamiliar and difficult letters would ruin the 
movement already developcd. 
It should be kept constantly in mind that the aire of 
the instruction is the creation of a proper writing more- 
ment. Word writing, while an exceedingly valuable 
thing in itself, should be largely eonsidered as a means 
to the end desired. If pupils use good movement and 
make the forms rhythmically and at the standard speed. 
there is no doubt that word practice affords an excellent 
means to establish and gain control over the writing 
movement. 
As an illustration of the way words should be taught, 
we shall take the word mine, Page 26, Book II. In teaeh- 
ing a word, a plan similar to that used for the letters is to 
be followed. The general appearance of the word should 
be noted. Next, the special features, the size and width 
of the letters, the width of the spacing, the leng-th of the 



WORD,g 83 

beginning and ending strokes, and any diffieult combina- 
tions of lctters should be noted. 
Observe that the word oceupies a quarter section, eon- 
sequently the spacing is comparatively wide. The first 
stroke of m bcgins on the line, and the final stroke in e 
is ruade as hizh as the mininmm letters. Counting for 
letters is a conparatively simple marrer, but the saine 
cannot be said of word.. In a lettcr or group of letters 
the strokes occur rcgularly. In words this regularity is 
]acking, owing fo the varying numl»cr of strokes in dif- 
ferent letter.. For instance, m has three down strokes, 
n bas two, and i and e bave one each. Consequently, if 
is difficult by simply counting fo indicate the rime re- 
quired fo make each letter. The best way is fo naine the 
letters. In the word mine, take care fo prolong the sound 
of m more than that of the othcr letters. If also is 
apparent that the rime required ïor either i or e is less 
than for n. 
To determine the standard rate af which the word i. 
fo be written is the next step. The rate af which the 
general-movement exerci.es i. ruade will be the basis for 
our calculation. Thcre are seven down strokes in the 
word, and allowing one for the change from one word fo 
the next, we bave a total of eight. Dividing eight into 
two hundred, we have twenty-five as our standard rate. 
Af first the rate will bc somewhat slower than this; 
but when the pupils have become accustomed fo the angles 
and turns in the word, the standard rate should be re- 
quired. By gradually increasing the courir, the number 
of words written in a minute may be increased fo twen-- 
eight or even thirty, without in any way sacrificing the 
form. 



Therc is another point which requires to be noted in 
««mnection with the speed af which thc writing should be 
d,,ne. If only the number of strokes is taken into con- 
sideration, often too high a speed would be made, with a 
conscquent sacrifice of good form. Due recognition shou]d 
be given fo the chccks in the movement in making certain 
lctters. Wherever a stroke has fo be retraced, as in o, w, 
v, and b, there should be a slight pau.e before making the 
retracing. If this is hot done little defects will appear, 
which not only lessen the legibility but also detract con- 
siderably from the neatness and beauty of the writing. 
It is fo be expected that nmnv defects will appear in the 
pupils' writing. There will be defects in ïorm, in more- 
ment. and in uniformity. Besides varying in size, there 
will be a great variation in the slant and the spacing of 
the lctters. These two features require special care. 
Unless the straight down strokes are made parallel with 
the line of vision, the letters composing the word will 
present an unpleasing lack of uniformity. 
3Iany defects in form are due fo lack of control over 
the writing movement. In cases of this kind, fo improve 
the form will require patience and earnest practice. But 
if is al true that some of the faults are due fo miscon- 
eeptions on the pupils' part of the forms they are tl3/ing fo 
reproduce. 17nfortunately, many pupils do not observe 
closely. They fail fo see the little things that go fo make 
up the difference between a good and a poor letter. Only 
hy showing pupils u'lere they are wrong ancl low fo 
correct the error, can such defects as these be remedied. 
In connection with the deïective spacing referred fo 
above, if mav be noted that the cause of this defect is 
traceable fo poor movement. If the hand moves forward 
in an even. relar fashion, the spacing between words 



SENTENCES 85 

will be as regular as is the movement. But if finger more- 
ment is used, or the side of the hand, or the wrist is 
allowed to touch the paper, the writing will exhibit marked 
irregularities in the spaces between the lctters. The 
remedy consists in cultivatinz a movement that will carry 
the hand across the page in an even, unhesitating way. 
Avoid the fault. shown in Plate XXV]II. 

PLATE XXVlII 

1. Slow finzer-movement writinz. 
2. Ver T irregular in size, 
3. Thê tops and bottoms of tile lettcrs are too anular, 
4. Thê slant is very irregular, 
5. Irre-ular spacin between the letters. 

XIX. HOW TO TEACH SENTEI'CES 
Just as some pupils are able fo makc good lctters and 
yet are unable to combine thcm well into words, so somc 
pupils can write words well and yet are unable to combine 
them successfully into sentences. To write a sentence 
well is a good test of a pupil's writing ability. It shows 
that he has mastered the writing movement, and that he 
is capable of applying the movement so as to produce a 
plain, neat, legible, and graceful sentence ; and that is one 
of the main objects which we have had in view from the 
first. 



86 WRITII'G 

IIow can thi. objcct be attained? The answer to that 
is best determined by a c)nsideration of the characteristics 
exhibited by a well-written sentence. 
The first characteristic is good noz'ement. The effect 
of such a movement i. easily discernible in the smoothness 
and evenness of the strokes. If the lines are broken or 
tremulous, or if the up .¢trokes are light and the down 
strokes are heavy, it can mean but one thing. The pupil 
is not using good muscular movement. Close observation 
by the teacher will prove the truth of this statement. The 
character of the lines reveals perfectly the manner in 
which the writing was donc. Even defects of pen-holding 
are noticeable in the strokes. Light upward strokes and 
heav)" lateral strokes indicate that the pen-point is not 
being held squarely on the pal)er. Such a fault as this 
needs fo be corrected before the lines will take on the 
smooth, even appearance essential fo good writing. 
A second characteristic, and one closely related fo 
that of movement, is speed. Weak. wavy, and broken 
lines are a sign that the movement is too slow; while 
rounded down strokes are an indication of either too rapid 
a movemcnt or carelessness in the movement. From this 
we may ¢vnclude that standard speed will produce neat, 
legible forms, and will also ensure that the writing is 
being donc both easily and efficiently. 
Another characteristic that everv well-written sentence 
possesses is unifority. This is achieved through control 
having been gained over the writing movement. The 
letters are uniform in size and slant; and the spacing 
between letters, as well as between words, is marked bv 
the saine characteristic. A sentence possessing this quality 
will be orderly, graceful, and beautiful in appearance. 



SENTENCES 87 

The last characteristic to be noted is tortu. If the 
pupils have nota proper conception of furm, it stands to 
reason that the writing will be neither legible nor neat. 
Form relates not only to the make-up of the letters, but 
fo the arrangement of letters in words, and of words in 
sentences. Undcr for» must also bc included the length 
of initial and final strokes. By paying strict attention te» 
these details a pupil should have no difficulty in writing a 
sentence that is plain, neat, and bcautifuh 
Consideration of these characteristics leads to the con- 
clusion that writing a sentence demands considerable skill 
on the part of the pupils. For this reason it is not well 
to commence with senten¢s that present difficult com- 
binations of letters. There should be a gradual increasc 
in difficulty. By this progressive method the pupils will 
gain confidence, which will be of value when they corne to 
those sentences that are ruade up of a variety of letters 
that are not only difficult in themselves but more so in 
combination with others. 
In order that thc sentence may possess these char- 
acteristics, the plan of practice should bc sumewhat after 
this fashion : 
1. There should be practice on the different words com- 
posing the sentence. This will help to make fhe pupils 
familiar with the combinations in each word. In this way, 
too, the speed may be materially increased, thus giving 
smoothness and evenness to the lines. 
2. The words should be written in colunms. The 
purpose in writing thcm in this way is to give neatness 
and order through having uniformity in spacing between 
letters and between words. When the pupils endeavour to 
put each letter exactly in line with the one above, it is an 



evidence that thcy are striving fo control the movement; 
and every success means one step nearer the goal. 
3. Faults shou]d next be noted, and checked in red ink 
if possible. Those faults that are peculiar to one pupil 
only may be corrected af his desk; but those that are 
common to a number in the class should be corrected at 
the board. Merely showing pupil., at this stage in the 
work. why they are wrong may offert suggest how to correct 
the error. 
4. From having written the words in colunms, the 
pupils shou]d have a good idea of how the sentence looks 
as far as neatness and arrangement are concerned. 
Therefore they shou]d be ready to write, in succession, the 
words forming the sentence. Persistent, intelligent prac- 
tice of this kind should enable any pupil who has a good 
movement control fo write a sentence that possesses ail the 
«haracteristics that every well-written .entcnce exhibits. 
5. Writinff a paragral,h presents prae/ically no diflï- 
eulty fo those who tan write sentences well. A certain 
amount of tare is required to sec that no displeasing 
effect. are cau:ed by upper loops or capitals coming in 
(--ntact with lower loops. To l»revent such an occurrence 
if is necessary that the writing be hot too large. A size 
that will meet ail requirements is that in which the 
minimum letters are one fourth of a space in height and 
the capitals and loop letters three rimes as high as the 
minimum letters. 
The only other point fo be observed, especially in 
paragraph writing, is the indention of the first line. The 
first word of a paragraph should always commence about 
one inch from the margin. 
Business forms require that special attention be given 
fo the arrangement of the words so as to secure simplicity, 



SIGNATURES 89 
grace, and beauty. Eliminate, as far as possible, all long 
and irregular ending strokes. 

XX. :HOW TO TEAC SIGNATURES 
If is offert said that signature writing is the final test 
of a writer's skill. Whether it is true or not, one thing 
is certain--if takes all the skill that a pupil possesses fo 
produce a graceful, legible signature. 
If is not fo be understood that any combination of 
letters will produce a bcautiful signature evcn wheu 
written by a ma.tcr writer. Many lettcrs cannot bc joined 
together except by a multiplicity of lines which destroy 
the ver 5' essentials that every signature should possess-- 
legibility and beauty. 
The main points fo be noted in connection with signa- 
ture writing are: (1) Simplicity of outlinc, (2) uni- 
formity in slant and direction of the strokes, (3) applica- 
tion of the principle of perspective, whereby the first 
letter is a little taller than the second, which in turn is 
taller than the third, (4) similarity of main strok(,s 
wherever possible. 
Encourage the pupils to strike out boldly ; and in.¢ist 
upon their using muscular movement. It is important 
before the pupil begins fo write a signature that he should 
bave a clear conception of the character of the combination 
of letters which compose if; otherwise the reproduction 
will fall far short of the original. Spacing will need fo be 
looked after carefully, or the signature will be devoid of 
the regularity that helps fo make if beautiful. 
Af least two pages of each signature should be ruade, 
in order that the pupils may be able to apply the more- 
ment skilfully. 



90 'RITING 

XXI. HOW TO TEACH THE BfAEKING ALPHABET 
The *narking alphabet is used largely in marking 
parcels, card indexes, headings, ledger headings, etc. The 
materials needed are an ordinary pen-holder, a fine, 
flexible pen-point, and well-calendered paper. 
The paper should be held so that the lines are parallel 
with the edge of the desk. The pen is held in the sa,ne 
'ay as in ordinary writing. The movement used in ïorm- 
ing the letters is a combined finger and muscular more- 
ment 
There is no attcmpt ruade af speed in doing this 
alphabet. About the saine speed is reqired as a person 
would se in forming print characters. Accuracy of ïorm 
and uniformity of slant and spacing are so essential that 
it is mch better fo be sure than speedy, especially af first. 
Close observation of the ïorms and strict attention to the 
manner of making them are necessaD. , or the efforts of the 
ppil will reslt in ïailure. 
The main point fo observe is tiret the maxinmm width 
of the shade cornes midway of the stroke; while each 
stroke begins and ends in a hair-line. 

XXII. A STAh"DARD OF MEASUREMEI'T 
Some standard for *neasring the writing prodct 
seems to be necessary, owing fo the difference in the 
attainments of pupils, and also fo the difference of 
opinion among all classes of people, edcators inclded, as 
fo what constittes good writing. Some consider that if 
the product is legible, no mattcr how slowly if may have 
been written, itis good writing. In this case the amount 
of rime and energy needed to produce the writing is 
entirely left out of the calculation. Others go so far as 



STANDARD OF MEASUREMENT 91 

fO say that writing of this kind is not writing at all; it 
is merely drawing. They assert that only writing which is 
done with specd and good movement constitutes good 
writing. In these circumstanees it is only natural that 
there s]muld be great difficulty in grading writing with 
any degree of unanimity; therefore some attcmpt fo arrive 
ata mean: «»f pla(.in.-a value upon the writing of pul)ils 
mu.*t be ruade. 
A few teachers of writing llae cndeaoured fo measurc 
the writing product by mcans of a scelle. Some of thesc 
seales have bcen tried in a fcw scllodS in the United 
States ; but it appears froln reports issut.d from authentic 
sources that experimentati¢m with them has proven that, 
while me»re dilîScult of appli¢.atian, they are no mor,, 
reliahle than thc ordilmr S nwth«,d of gradintz by per- 
centage. 
Howerer that may be, the use of a scale for mea.uring 
writing partakes too much of the nature of a machine. 
The human element in writing seems tobe ignored ; and 
any sy.¢tem of mcasuring writing that ignores the writcr 
cannot accurately gauge his writing. In other words, anv 
system that attempts to measure the writing of a pupil 
without kno'ing how that pupil sits at his desk, cannot 
place a correct valuation on his writing. A scale nmv be 
able to measure the produ«t, but it cannot correctly 
measure all the phases of the process. 
There is no doubt that, to a careful observer, the 
character of the writing revcals many things that arc not 
plain fo othcrs. The kind of movement used, thc manner 
of holding the pen, and the position of thc hand are quitc 
plain fo one -ho has studied this question carcfully. But 
the stroke docs not rcveal whethcr tho pupil i. sitting il 
a hygienic po»ition or not. Sincc healtll is of so 
7w 



92 WRITING 

importance, some eonsidcration should be given to this 
matter in e-all-in«_ ,, the writing product. 
To arrive af a just standard of valuation of the writing 
product, a correct idca of what is meant by good writing 
shouhl prove hclpful. Let ls thon consider, as briefly as 
possible, what are gcnerally recognized as the essential 
qualities in satisfactory writing. 
What constitutes excellence in writing depcnds largcly 
lpOn the point of view of the pcrson concerned. Should 
ho be the readcr, naturally ho will  icw if from the stand- 
point of rccognition. But if he is the writer, he will look 
at if from the stand-point of production. Therefore, in 
dctcrminin»- a standard of measurement, these two phascs 
must hot bc overlooked. The rime and the-cnergy thc 
writer spends on production are of as much import- 
ance as the rime and the cner" the reader spends in 
rccognition. 
To appraisc thc efficicncy of writing, then. wc should 
have some moans of dctermining the encrgy expcnded in 
doin if. Supposc that two pupils put forth thc saine 
amount of effort. Ont. howcvcr, writcs on]y hall what 
the other does in a given rime. It. therefore, stands to 
rcason that one pupil is spendin double the amount of 
cnergy that is actuallv required; and since if is hot actu- 
ally rcquircd if is wasted. 
Determination of the amomt of energy rcquircd is 
oonccrned exclusively with the mcchanics of writin»---thc 
mode of production, o which we shall now turn. 
The first factor to be con.idercd is posture. Thc 
anmunt of encr,,_-y expende,1 depends largely upon the 
posture which the PUl,il. a.smne. In so far as the posture 
is unhygienie, cramped. - nncomfortalfle, just so far will 
lit-re ho a waste of f-roc, lhlt wherc thc posture fulfils 



STANDARD OF MEASUREMENT 93 

the requirements of health, ïreedom, and comfort, then the 
writing will be donc with the greatest economy of mlergy. 
The second factor concerned in thc mode of producti(m 
is movement. When writing is donc with the fingcr 
movcment, an undue tax is put upon the small muscles of 
the hand, and the fingers become tircd and crampe& The 
rcsult is a serious lo.s of ncrvou. energy to the writer. 
In addition, when speed is demanded, thé'lcttcrs produccd 
].y finger movement lose greatly in lcgibility, with a con- 
sequent loss in ener" fo the reader. 
Itis only wllcn a wcll co-ordinatcd muscular more- 
ment is used that  riting can be 1)roduced 'ith economy 
of cnergy. Thc tax is put nl.on the large muscles of thc 
arm and shouldcr ; and thc hand glidcs easily on the nail.-: 
of the third and fourth fingcrs. Thus the writing is donc 
in an easy, tircless, economical way. 
A concomitant of thc ease of production resulting from 
a free movement is the third elcment--speed. Slow writ- 
ing produces weak, trcmulous lines, so that sometimes 
even its legibility is impaircd, although that is the onc 
quality that would usually bc expcctcd to accompany such 
writing.  hcn standard .I)eed is attaincd, the lines bc- 
come strong and evcn, and the lctters stand out plainly 
fo view. 
In addition to estimating the efficiency of the writing, 
there is anothcr side to ])e considcred--lneasuring thc 
quality of the produet. What are the qualities that go to 
make writing good or bad? What are the features that 
make some writing easy fo read and some hard to read ? 
Naturally, in dctermining the excellence of the produet, 
the first thing to consider is the form of the letters. This 
eonstitutes the fundamental basi. of lcgibility. In order, 
then, that the product may be legible, it is essential that 



J4 WRITING 

the letters conform to the standard tortu. Deviations will 
oeeur owing to speed and laek of control over the more- 
ment. But as long as the deviations do not depart too 
far from the fundamental features of the letter, no serious 
drawback will ensue. 
Another characteristic excellence that good writing 
undoubtedly possesses is uiformity. There must be 
uniform size anl slaut in letters and uniform spacing 
bctween letters in a word aud bctween words in a sentence. 
Lack of uniforlnitv detracts, te, a certain extent, from the 
legibility, and. fo a nlu«h zreater extent, from the neat- 
ncss, graee, and bcautv of tbe writiug. 
In eudeavoul'ing t,, arrive af a standard for measuring 
tl,e excelleuee of writing, we have scen that therc are two 
main factors that nlust be cousidered--the process and tl,e 
produ«t. Tbe next pr«,blenl is how t« alTortion a value 
for each of these factors. 
The objective that the instruction bas in view should 
varv eonsiderably with almost every class. With junior 
pupils the process is almost ail-important, the product 
being a minor consideration. With senior pupils (those 
who have been trained in museular nmvement from the 
Primarv Grade np), the process should have beeome 
largely automatic. Correct habits of writinz should have 
bccome cstablished, and thc movemcnt wcll co-ordinated. 
The product, then, must bccome of increasinz importance. 
A«cordiugly, thc standard of measurcnlcnt should vary fo 
suit the needs of the cla.s. 
Any standard that is uscd fo mcasurc thc writing 
must make provision for a]l the factors already mentioned. 
In the percentage standard given bclow these factors are 
takÇn iuto account. 



STANDARD OF MEASUREMENT 95 

Pi.:RçE.N'TA(JE ST.%XDAi,'D OF 

Posture 
Movement and Speed 
Form 

Primary ,Third and Fourth 
irst and Secold I Classes 
Classes I 
I 
I 

Fifth 
('lass 

15 
25 
BO 

.\ word of warning lmed 1«* l»e giron ]ere against too 
strict an adherclwe t. the standard. It is only a relative 
stmldard, hot an absolute Olm. Mastery over the lm»VC- 
mcut should be "che determilling factor in alluost every 
case. Some pupils in a scnior class may hot have llaS- 
"ccred thc movcluent. CmscqUCllt]y it W«al]d ho unfair fo 
them to apply the elas. .chedule; the schedule of a ]«,WCl" 
class shouh] be applicd in su«-h cases. And whcre a jUlli(*r 
pupil rapidly develop. a g,od m-ement, obviously the 
schedule of a higher class should he used in his case. 
There is another phase of this marier that needs to be 
kept in mind. The class sehcdulc shi»uld hot be applied 
until the i)upils havc had the amount of practice in 
lnuscular movement "dmt their partieular grade of class 
requires. That i.¢, it would evidentiv bc unju.¢t fo apply 
the sehedulc of a Second .r a Third Class ¢ one just 
beginn]ng thc .tudy of mus(.ular-movcmeut writing. 

XxIII. VRITING IN UNGRADED SCIIOOLS 
The problcm «..nfr.ntinz the tcachcr of an ungraded 
school is much nmre complex than the one which the 
teacher of the graded school has fo meet. There are so 
many classes and so many other subjects that it is difficult 
fo find time fo do the work as it shouhl be donc. Yet the 



96 VRITING 

earnêst, ingenious tea¢.her will evolvê some plan whêrêby 
/he work will be donc suecessfull.v, just as lac has êvolvêd 
plans to overeolnê difficulties that have ari.*en iu conneetiou 
with other subje(.t.*. 
Ail that can bê done in a Manual of this kind is to 
make somc suggestions which thc teaeher may use as a 
working ba.*is to i'ornmlatc a plan whcreby musêular- 
lnoement writing ma 3- be given a chance to slmw that if 
is able. even in a rural school, to develop in the pupils a 
style of writing that i. easv to write aud easy to read. 
The main facteur t,» be considered is that of tirne. Thê 
nUlnber of cla.*ses aud the nulnber of pupils in the classes 
u.,ualh" i. del»endent Ul»,u thê number of pupil attending 
the seho,. T,, the small rural school the question presents 
l,O real oh.ta(.lc : but to thc large .('hool with its many and 
large classes it presents a lnore colnplicated problem. 
The «.hier diffi«ultv arise iu thê first yêar after the 
adoption of mu.*cuhir-moement writing. The problem is 
h,Jv t, Ç.t rime fo teaeh ail thc pul»iN thc e.sential steps, 
when tlwre are sc lnany classe., to tcach. IIowever, this 
part of thc w«,rk i.* alul«»t the .came for ail, ïrom the 
.vounge.t tc the olde.*t: and thc in.*truetions regarding 
po.*ture, pen-h,,ldin:z, aml movement may bê taught 
• imultaneouslv fo all the pupils. Or, preferably, two 
divi.ions mav bc forlned of thc elasse., and each division 
mav bc instruetcd separatel.v. The fir.*t divi.ion should 
compri,ê the Primary. Fir.t. and .%.ccnd Clauses, and the 
.ccond divisicn thc relnaining elas.es iu the school. 
When teaching the junior group, endcavour to arrange 
if so that when one «.las. is at the board, the other classes 
are praeti.¢ing at thê desk. A copy should be written on 
the board for each clas.. The teaeher must watch for 
defects in l»«,»hre, movement, and pen-holding. In the 



IN UNGRAI)ED 8ÇHOOLS 97 

meantime ho should be counting. AIl thc classes iit this 
group hotfld commence with the l'rimary coiffes , and co- 
tinue to practise thc work as outlined up to and including 
that for their own class. 
en the (.lasses are very large the work may 
simplified c«»nsiderably for thc teacher by having somc of 
the senior pupils, who know how it should be donc, assist 
the more heli)lcs of the younRer pulfils. r, whilc thc 
tcachcr is busy criticallv cxnninin the practice work of 
the l)upil, a seni«,r pupil wlm has an car f«r rhythm may 
count. Such a plan, bcsides beinff hcll)ful fo the tcacher, 
will add intcrest to th.e work among scnior pupils. 
qaenever it iq posib]e, the junior division should hae 
two periods a day, one i the forelloon an«l one in the 
afternoon. The p«.riods noed n«,t be l«mffer than 
minutes. 
With the pupils of the senior divisiol a plan somehat 
similar may be used. even fo the b«ard writinff, e»peeially 
during the first month «»r tw«,. A eopy for caeh class in 
the group should be written on tho b-ard, and brief oral 
instructions hould aecompany each. {hm period a day of 
twenty minutes sh«»uhl be suffieient, preferably just hef,}re 
reeess. Af that rime the pupil' nerves are ealm, and 
thev are not ver fatigued bv the êxaeting uork of the dav. 
There is another point that must hot l»e forgotten. 
Until such rime as the l»ul»ils have had a thorough train- 
ing in the essential stepsof muscular movement, it would 
be unreasonable fo expect them fo beil aL once with the 
work l»reseribed for their elas, exeept in the case of 
B,,»k II. Part'I and Book III. Part I. Eaeh 
is se, arranged that there is a gadual in«rease in dilli«.ully 
fr«»laa the »t exereise te, flic last. l'art I. 
111. cotains a conTlcte c«ursc of gra«led writing. There 



98 WRITING 

are chou,Ah copies contained in it f-r a vear's w.rk. The 
Fourth (']ass should review the work for the Third Class 
before «ommeneing Part II, Book II. A similar plan is 
fo be fo]]owed in Forn Il of the ]Iigh School. 

The arrangem.»t -f tl)c dilt:crc)t parts .f thc (l*b«rio 
ll'ritb, g Courses in rclati«m t- thc classes is as follows: 

B-ok I : 
Part 
Part 
Part 

I is t'«»r use in F,»rm I..]uni,r rad(.. 
Il i. fin" use in F.m I. Senior (lrade. 
III i, for use in Form lI. 

Book ! ] 
Part 
Part 

I is f«,r use in Form III. 
Il i.¢ f«r use in Form IV. 

B«,-k ] I I : 
Part I is f«.r use in Form V. or Form I of 
tinuation Sclmols or Iligh Sehools. 
l'art II is for uc in F.rm II of Continuation 
Schools or High Schools.